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  • HL Essay: Exemplar 3 (George Monbiot)
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level 3 english essay exemplars

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About English

English is the study, use, and enjoyment of the English language communicated orally, visually, and in writing, for a range of purposes and audiences, and in a variety of forms.

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Annotate where the student:

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Then decide what it would get for NCEA 3.3 and how it could be improved

Act three, scene three, lines 1-17

Using a close analysis of the extract, discuss how fully it reflects the major themes of "The Merchant of Venice"

This scene comes after Bassanio hears that Antonio's ships have failed to return on time. Antonio tries to reason with Shylock, but he remains obdurate and demands justice. The extract reflects the themes of mercy, religion (Christianity and anti-Semitism), revenge, law and justice. These are all major themes in "The Merchant of Venice."

Shakespeare shows the hypocritical nature of society through the theme of mercy. The theme of mercy is reflected in the extract as Shylock boldly states "tell me not of mercy". Shylock refuses to be merciful and urges the bond be forfeit. Beyond the extract Portia speaks strongly of mercy:

"The quality of mercy is not strain'd, It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven Upon the place beneath: it is twice blessed" (4,1,180-182).

Portia believes that mercy should not be forced, and that it should come naturally. Yet in the play there is a great lack of mercy. After talking this way about mercy, she does not show Shylock any and treats him harshly. "Thy lands and goods are confiscate." If indeed "the quality of mercy is not strain'd" and it "droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven" should Shylock beg for mercy? "Down therefore, and beg mercy of the Duke." The theme of mercy also ties in with the theme of religion. Portia says, "it is an attribute to God himself" and refers to the God of the New Testament, the Christian God, who is seen as merciful. The idea that Christians are merciful is repeatedly enforced in the play. In the extract Shylock says that mercy is for fools, or Christians, "I'll not be made a soft and dull-eyed fool, to Christian intercessors." Earlier in the text he says that all Christians are fools, "To gaze on Christian fools" possibly because they are seen as merciful. The Duke further portrays this idea of Christians being merciful when he says "That thou shalt see the difference in our spirit." The word 'our' refers to all Christians. And finally, Antonio supposedly shows Shylock mercy by merely turning him into a "merciful Christian."

"The Merchant of Venice" portrays anti-Semitic views and Jews are highly prejudiced against by Christians. The principal bearer of these pre-judgements is Shylock. In the extract Shylock says "Thou call'dst me dog before thou hadst a cause." The 'cause' is that he is a Jew. The theme of anti-Semitism in the play is reflected through the harsh treatment that Shylock receives from others, especially Christians. He is called "Misbeliever", "cut throat dog" and is spat on. Often Shylock is referred to accusingly as "The Jew". For example "To be taken at thy peril, Jew" and "We all expect a gentle answer Jew." He is also continuously conveyed as the Devil, "Lest the Devil cross my prayer, for here he comes in the likeness of a Jew". Anti-Semitism was a feature of Shakespeare's world as it is a feature of our world today. In the play, however, it functions as the principal cause of Shylock's desire to have revenge on Antonio and also allows the audience to have some sympathy with his predicament.

In the extract Shylock continues by saying "But since I am a dog, beware my fangs" which shows how his treatment by the Christians fuels his desire for revenge. This idea is seen prominently in his most famous speech:

"...If it will feed nothing else, it will feed my revenge; he hath disgraced me, and hinder'd me half a million, laughed at my losses, mock'd at my gains, scorned my nation, thwarted my bargains, cooled my friends, heated mine enemies - and what's his reason? I am a Jew." (3,1,47-52)

Shylock's prose shows how he absorbs these hurtful acts until he can no longer. His hurt and sadness caused by Antonio turns to anger and then manifests itself in revenge. By taking revenge on Antonio, he will be taking revenge on all Christians. The listing of eight powerful verbs in this speech shows the build up of his emotions. The theme of revenge is inextricably linked to the theme of religion as Shylock believes that revenge is a Christian quality (just as Portia believes that mercy is a Christian quality).

"If a Christian wrong a Jew, what should his sufferance be by Christian example? - why revenge!" (3,1, 63-64)

The harsh anti-Semitism can be seen as a sort of revenge. It is the Christian's way of getting revenge on the Jews for their belief in the Old Testament. "He hates our nation", Shylock will therefore execute the 'villainy' and 'better the instruction' by using the law against Antonio and pressing that 'justice' be done.

In the extract Shylock says, "The Duke shall grant me justice" and repeats "I will have my bond" five times. He uses the words 'shall' and 'will' to declare his bond be forfeit under all circumstances and to show that the law must be obeyed. Shylock desires the law when it is in his favour. "I crave the law, the penalty and the forfeit of my bond." He uses it as the primary means to exact the revenge he so desires from Antonio. "If you deny me, fie upon your law." Venice was renowned in Shakepeare's day as a place where the law was upheld fiercely and rigidly. The theme of law and justice is further reflected in the play as Portia. In a similar fashion to Shylock, Portia manipulates and enforces the law strongly.

"The Jew shall have all the justice, soft no haste! He shall have nothing but the penalty." (4,1, 317-318)

Shylock seeks revenge by exploiting the power of the law, and Portia manipulates the law to turn the tide of it against Shylock.

In conclusion, this extract reflects the major themes of mercy, religion, revenge and law and justice. All of these themes are intertwined and one is the cause or result of another. The overlapping makes the themes more complex and is a reflection of the complexity of human nature. And it is human emotion and passion that dictates our response to these issues.

"So can I give no reason, nor I will not, More than a lodg'd hate, and a certain loathing I bear Antonio." (4,1,59-61).

Published on: 10 Dec 2010

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Example of a Great Essay | Explanations, Tips & Tricks

Published on February 9, 2015 by Shane Bryson . Revised on July 23, 2023 by Shona McCombes.

This example guides you through the structure of an essay. It shows how to build an effective introduction , focused paragraphs , clear transitions between ideas, and a strong conclusion .

Each paragraph addresses a single central point, introduced by a topic sentence , and each point is directly related to the thesis statement .

As you read, hover over the highlighted parts to learn what they do and why they work.

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Table of contents

Other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about writing an essay, an appeal to the senses: the development of the braille system in nineteenth-century france.

The invention of Braille was a major turning point in the history of disability. The writing system of raised dots used by visually impaired people was developed by Louis Braille in nineteenth-century France. In a society that did not value disabled people in general, blindness was particularly stigmatized, and lack of access to reading and writing was a significant barrier to social participation. The idea of tactile reading was not entirely new, but existing methods based on sighted systems were difficult to learn and use. As the first writing system designed for blind people’s needs, Braille was a groundbreaking new accessibility tool. It not only provided practical benefits, but also helped change the cultural status of blindness. This essay begins by discussing the situation of blind people in nineteenth-century Europe. It then describes the invention of Braille and the gradual process of its acceptance within blind education. Subsequently, it explores the wide-ranging effects of this invention on blind people’s social and cultural lives.

Lack of access to reading and writing put blind people at a serious disadvantage in nineteenth-century society. Text was one of the primary methods through which people engaged with culture, communicated with others, and accessed information; without a well-developed reading system that did not rely on sight, blind people were excluded from social participation (Weygand, 2009). While disabled people in general suffered from discrimination, blindness was widely viewed as the worst disability, and it was commonly believed that blind people were incapable of pursuing a profession or improving themselves through culture (Weygand, 2009). This demonstrates the importance of reading and writing to social status at the time: without access to text, it was considered impossible to fully participate in society. Blind people were excluded from the sighted world, but also entirely dependent on sighted people for information and education.

In France, debates about how to deal with disability led to the adoption of different strategies over time. While people with temporary difficulties were able to access public welfare, the most common response to people with long-term disabilities, such as hearing or vision loss, was to group them together in institutions (Tombs, 1996). At first, a joint institute for the blind and deaf was created, and although the partnership was motivated more by financial considerations than by the well-being of the residents, the institute aimed to help people develop skills valuable to society (Weygand, 2009). Eventually blind institutions were separated from deaf institutions, and the focus shifted towards education of the blind, as was the case for the Royal Institute for Blind Youth, which Louis Braille attended (Jimenez et al, 2009). The growing acknowledgement of the uniqueness of different disabilities led to more targeted education strategies, fostering an environment in which the benefits of a specifically blind education could be more widely recognized.

Several different systems of tactile reading can be seen as forerunners to the method Louis Braille developed, but these systems were all developed based on the sighted system. The Royal Institute for Blind Youth in Paris taught the students to read embossed roman letters, a method created by the school’s founder, Valentin Hauy (Jimenez et al., 2009). Reading this way proved to be a rather arduous task, as the letters were difficult to distinguish by touch. The embossed letter method was based on the reading system of sighted people, with minimal adaptation for those with vision loss. As a result, this method did not gain significant success among blind students.

Louis Braille was bound to be influenced by his school’s founder, but the most influential pre-Braille tactile reading system was Charles Barbier’s night writing. A soldier in Napoleon’s army, Barbier developed a system in 1819 that used 12 dots with a five line musical staff (Kersten, 1997). His intention was to develop a system that would allow the military to communicate at night without the need for light (Herron, 2009). The code developed by Barbier was phonetic (Jimenez et al., 2009); in other words, the code was designed for sighted people and was based on the sounds of words, not on an actual alphabet. Barbier discovered that variants of raised dots within a square were the easiest method of reading by touch (Jimenez et al., 2009). This system proved effective for the transmission of short messages between military personnel, but the symbols were too large for the fingertip, greatly reducing the speed at which a message could be read (Herron, 2009). For this reason, it was unsuitable for daily use and was not widely adopted in the blind community.

Nevertheless, Barbier’s military dot system was more efficient than Hauy’s embossed letters, and it provided the framework within which Louis Braille developed his method. Barbier’s system, with its dashes and dots, could form over 4000 combinations (Jimenez et al., 2009). Compared to the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet, this was an absurdly high number. Braille kept the raised dot form, but developed a more manageable system that would reflect the sighted alphabet. He replaced Barbier’s dashes and dots with just six dots in a rectangular configuration (Jimenez et al., 2009). The result was that the blind population in France had a tactile reading system using dots (like Barbier’s) that was based on the structure of the sighted alphabet (like Hauy’s); crucially, this system was the first developed specifically for the purposes of the blind.

While the Braille system gained immediate popularity with the blind students at the Institute in Paris, it had to gain acceptance among the sighted before its adoption throughout France. This support was necessary because sighted teachers and leaders had ultimate control over the propagation of Braille resources. Many of the teachers at the Royal Institute for Blind Youth resisted learning Braille’s system because they found the tactile method of reading difficult to learn (Bullock & Galst, 2009). This resistance was symptomatic of the prevalent attitude that the blind population had to adapt to the sighted world rather than develop their own tools and methods. Over time, however, with the increasing impetus to make social contribution possible for all, teachers began to appreciate the usefulness of Braille’s system (Bullock & Galst, 2009), realizing that access to reading could help improve the productivity and integration of people with vision loss. It took approximately 30 years, but the French government eventually approved the Braille system, and it was established throughout the country (Bullock & Galst, 2009).

Although Blind people remained marginalized throughout the nineteenth century, the Braille system granted them growing opportunities for social participation. Most obviously, Braille allowed people with vision loss to read the same alphabet used by sighted people (Bullock & Galst, 2009), allowing them to participate in certain cultural experiences previously unavailable to them. Written works, such as books and poetry, had previously been inaccessible to the blind population without the aid of a reader, limiting their autonomy. As books began to be distributed in Braille, this barrier was reduced, enabling people with vision loss to access information autonomously. The closing of the gap between the abilities of blind and the sighted contributed to a gradual shift in blind people’s status, lessening the cultural perception of the blind as essentially different and facilitating greater social integration.

The Braille system also had important cultural effects beyond the sphere of written culture. Its invention later led to the development of a music notation system for the blind, although Louis Braille did not develop this system himself (Jimenez, et al., 2009). This development helped remove a cultural obstacle that had been introduced by the popularization of written musical notation in the early 1500s. While music had previously been an arena in which the blind could participate on equal footing, the transition from memory-based performance to notation-based performance meant that blind musicians were no longer able to compete with sighted musicians (Kersten, 1997). As a result, a tactile musical notation system became necessary for professional equality between blind and sighted musicians (Kersten, 1997).

Braille paved the way for dramatic cultural changes in the way blind people were treated and the opportunities available to them. Louis Braille’s innovation was to reimagine existing reading systems from a blind perspective, and the success of this invention required sighted teachers to adapt to their students’ reality instead of the other way around. In this sense, Braille helped drive broader social changes in the status of blindness. New accessibility tools provide practical advantages to those who need them, but they can also change the perspectives and attitudes of those who do not.

Bullock, J. D., & Galst, J. M. (2009). The Story of Louis Braille. Archives of Ophthalmology , 127(11), 1532. https://​doi.org/10.1001/​archophthalmol.2009.286.

Herron, M. (2009, May 6). Blind visionary. Retrieved from https://​eandt.theiet.org/​content/​articles/2009/05/​blind-visionary/.

Jiménez, J., Olea, J., Torres, J., Alonso, I., Harder, D., & Fischer, K. (2009). Biography of Louis Braille and Invention of the Braille Alphabet. Survey of Ophthalmology , 54(1), 142–149. https://​doi.org/10.1016/​j.survophthal.2008.10.006.

Kersten, F.G. (1997). The history and development of Braille music methodology. The Bulletin of Historical Research in Music Education , 18(2). Retrieved from https://​www.jstor.org/​stable/40214926.

Mellor, C.M. (2006). Louis Braille: A touch of genius . Boston: National Braille Press.

Tombs, R. (1996). France: 1814-1914 . London: Pearson Education Ltd.

Weygand, Z. (2009). The blind in French society from the Middle Ages to the century of Louis Braille . Stanford: Stanford University Press.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

  • Ad hominem fallacy
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An essay is a focused piece of writing that explains, argues, describes, or narrates.

In high school, you may have to write many different types of essays to develop your writing skills.

Academic essays at college level are usually argumentative : you develop a clear thesis about your topic and make a case for your position using evidence, analysis and interpretation.

The structure of an essay is divided into an introduction that presents your topic and thesis statement , a body containing your in-depth analysis and arguments, and a conclusion wrapping up your ideas.

The structure of the body is flexible, but you should always spend some time thinking about how you can organize your essay to best serve your ideas.

Your essay introduction should include three main things, in this order:

  • An opening hook to catch the reader’s attention.
  • Relevant background information that the reader needs to know.
  • A thesis statement that presents your main point or argument.

The length of each part depends on the length and complexity of your essay .

A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . Everything else you write should relate to this key idea.

A topic sentence is a sentence that expresses the main point of a paragraph . Everything else in the paragraph should relate to the topic sentence.

At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays , research papers , and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises).

Add a citation whenever you quote , paraphrase , or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.

The exact format of your citations depends on which citation style you are instructed to use. The most common styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago .

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Bryson, S. (2023, July 23). Example of a Great Essay | Explanations, Tips & Tricks. Scribbr. Retrieved February 21, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/academic-essay/example-essay-structure/

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Mastering the Long Form NCEA English Essay at Level 3

8 February 2023

7 minutes to read

hand holding pen writing in notebook

  • 01. Using past exams to pass NCEA English
  • 02. NCEA English Strength Training
  • 03. Using the Texts You Know
  • 04. How much should you write?
  • 05. Using Other Students' Work Isn't Cheating
  • 06. Let the words flow

While some NCEA subjects have external exams with multiple questions and short answers, one of the challenges for sitting NCEA Level 3 English is some of the unit standards have more in-depth exams, requiring a full essay response.

However, as with all exams, it is highly recommended that students complete at least one previous year’s exam to ensure they understand what is required and are confident going into the exam.

books of One hundred best poems

Using past exams to pass NCEA English

Looking at a single Level 3 English unit standard “respond critically to specified aspects of studied written texts, supported by evidence” as our main example of an external exam in formal essay format, which students will take at the end of the year, can give us some clear tips as to how to not only pass this exam but to achieve an Excellence grade.

Past exams are all freely available from the NCEA website. If you’re working with a tutor to improve your understanding of NCEA English Level 3, then past exams provide a very clear guideline to focus on.

NCEA English Strength Training

One of the things that you will want to practice is writing by hand for an extended period of time, particularly for long-form essay exams.  If you are not used to writing for the time allowed for this exam students often will get to the end and start to find that their hand cramps up which distracts from their ability to come up with new ideas or to write that amazing conclusion that would take them from an Achievement to an Achievement with Excellence .

It may seem like a silly thing to worry about as far as sitting an English exam goes, but strength in your hands can actually make a huge difference. Practice writing for extended periods, but don’t write so long your hands start to cramp up (this can cause long-term damage and bring about things like carpal tunnel syndrome).

Change your grip or positioning, and make sure that the pen you're going to use is comfortable for writing over extended periods of time.

If you intend to go onto university being able to write for extended periods of time is an incredibly valuable skill. You may think that you'll be taking your notes using a keyboard, however, no matter what your touch-typing speed is, multiple studies have shown that people retain knowledge better when taking notes using a handwriting technique – whether using a digital stylus or using pen and paper.

So, strengthening your handwriting is not something to do just for this exam, it will be a skill that will help throughout your academic career – and will make your life easier going forward.

Library with computers is a great place to start working out how to use the Texts You Know

Using the Texts You Know

For your English course, you will be studying a variety of texts. Some of these will be fiction, some will be nonfiction, and there will be poetry, perhaps plays or comics and graphic novels.

There's a variety of different texts that you will be looking at, with the idea that you will develop an ability to critique and complete a close reading of these texts.

By this level, you should understand that studying or analysing a text is not the same as simply sitting down and reading it you are looking for a deeper meaning you are looking to understand what the author was trying to portray.

While you often will enjoy the text that you are studying developing that additional knowledge will also help you to become a better communicator.

Past NCEA English Exam Statements

Looking at past exams, one of the examples that you need to write is a full essay on a single text choosing one statement from a given list to build your essay around:

  • the power of a persuasive text comes from well-crafted language
  • a skilful writer conveys their purpose through believable relationships
  • characters who reach a turning point are those from whom we learn the most
  • the important messages in a text are conveyed by the differences between settings
  • significant connections between the start and end of text reveal important ideas
  • characters who criticize society are those who teach us the most
  • effective text use uses imagery to present the ordinary and extraordinary ways
  • texts that offer an insightful view of the world are worth the readers time

You can choose one of these eight statements and relate them to any of the texts that you have read throughout the year. The statement you will choose will often be influenced by which text you are going to work with.

If you have focused on a text that uses language you love but you found the characters to be bland or unrelatable, look at working with one of the statements focused on language. You can, and usually should, still talk about the characters, but unless you are particularly passionate in your dislike of their portrayal you are likely to run out of words to craft a strong analysis.

As an exercise to try before your exam, look at a comic book or pick a magazine article to do a close read of. Then, write a short essay that uses one of these eight statements.

You don’t need to practice with a 600-page novel, you can use a short story or poetry; you can use a digital or online text; the key is that you have done a close reading and analysis and have a deep understanding of the text that you have written.

This exam isn’t so much about what you have read, but how you interpret it, and then how you can communicate the ideas that your reading inspired. So, get someone else to read what you have written, ideally your teacher or tutor, for feedback.

When you go into your exam you will need to know the type of written text you will be working with, the title, and the author or the authors – without this information your marker will be less likely to be able to interpret your essay.

If you are a person who has a mental blank when you walk into an exam practice, just practice this using several different titles, several different authors, and just keep writing.

This will make it easier when you walk into the exam to actually work out what is going on, and to remember all those brilliant thoughts and out of the blue insights you reached while you were studying a particular text.

How much should you write?

Although each exam will provide you instructions on how much they expect you to write, generally for a long form essay you should write a concise piece of no more than five to six pages in length.

The quality of your writing is more important than the length of your essay, but can you write 5 to 6 pages? Practice - sit down and try!

To pass English Level 3 exams (as with many exams), the key thing is to ensure that you are able to write down your planning. You will be given a scrap piece of paper, so use this to jot down ideas or create a mind map if you need.

This can help you make sure that your essay covers all the key points asked in the question. Break your question down and tick each one as you write a beautiful paragraph response.

Looking at the “respond critically to specified aspects of studied written texts, supported by evidence” exam, in order to achieve excellence you must respond critically and perceptively to specified aspects of studied written text supported by evidence .

The difference between Excellence and Achievement is being perceptive.  Crafting a critical essay will see you achieve a pass, this is the bare minimum required from students at Level 3.

If you want to achieve full Excellence you need to show that you have a deep understanding of the text, and that you are able to make inferences about what the author meant with certain phrases or certain imagery and relate that back to the context of the statement you are writing about.

Woman with pencil in mouth excited to discover NCEA English Exemplars free online

Using Other Students' Work Isn't Cheating

Along with past exams, the New Zealand Ministry of Education provides marked exemplars to help students know what their goals should be.  As part of your study process going through these marked exemplars not only gives you the opportunity to see what other students have written but also to see what the examiner's feedback of each answer is.

If you were writing about the story of Cinderella you wouldn't necessarily focus on the relationship between Cinderella and the Prince, or Cinderella and her step sisters, you could analyse the role minor characters have in building the story (such as her father). Could we use a cultural or societal example about Cinderella at the ball?

A situation where she is receiving approval from the guests around her so therefore she is more likely to feel comfortable fitting in as a Princess than if she outwardly appeared as a maid. There is a lot to analyze and a lot to infer from a simple retelling of a story.

However, you are not retelling the story, you are analyzing the story and you're making inferences.

One of the interesting things about writing for English studies is that this isn't necessarily a right or wrong answer. You do, however, need to be able to craft a well-written response that justifies your position.

You could make a statement that Cinderella was ungrateful in a time when others of her circumstance would have been homeless, or that the story is holding up misogyny and a cultural norm -  but the key is that you have to be able to justify your inferences and match them not only to the story but to the statement that you have chosen to write your essay on.

Let the words flow

Students get bogged down with the stress of sitting exams, of having so much information to retain and regurgitate - however, if you let yourself be moved by the text you are studying, love it or hate it, you'll find that the words start to come easier.

However, just like anything, if you don't practice you won't get better. So, keep writing. Write reviews for blogs, share your thoughts on social media, the more you write, the easier it will be to write once you're in your exam.

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EU AI Act: first regulation on artificial intelligence

The use of artificial intelligence in the EU will be regulated by the AI Act, the world’s first comprehensive AI law. Find out how it will protect you.

A man faces a computer generated figure with programming language in the background

As part of its digital strategy , the EU wants to regulate artificial intelligence (AI) to ensure better conditions for the development and use of this innovative technology. AI can create many benefits , such as better healthcare; safer and cleaner transport; more efficient manufacturing; and cheaper and more sustainable energy.

In April 2021, the European Commission proposed the first EU regulatory framework for AI. It says that AI systems that can be used in different applications are analysed and classified according to the risk they pose to users. The different risk levels will mean more or less regulation. Once approved, these will be the world’s first rules on AI.

Learn more about what artificial intelligence is and how it is used

What Parliament wants in AI legislation

Parliament’s priority is to make sure that AI systems used in the EU are safe, transparent, traceable, non-discriminatory and environmentally friendly. AI systems should be overseen by people, rather than by automation, to prevent harmful outcomes.

Parliament also wants to establish a technology-neutral, uniform definition for AI that could be applied to future AI systems.

Learn more about Parliament’s work on AI and its vision for AI’s future

AI Act: different rules for different risk levels

The new rules establish obligations for providers and users depending on the level of risk from artificial intelligence. While many AI systems pose minimal risk, they need to be assessed.

Unacceptable risk

Unacceptable risk AI systems are systems considered a threat to people and will be banned. They include:

  • Cognitive behavioural manipulation of people or specific vulnerable groups: for example voice-activated toys that encourage dangerous behaviour in children
  • Social scoring: classifying people based on behaviour, socio-economic status or personal characteristics
  • Biometric identification and categorisation of people
  • Real-time and remote biometric identification systems, such as facial recognition

Some exceptions may be allowed for law enforcement purposes. “Real-time” remote biometric identification systems will be allowed in a limited number of serious cases, while “post” remote biometric identification systems, where identification occurs after a significant delay, will be allowed to prosecute serious crimes and only after court approval.

AI systems that negatively affect safety or fundamental rights will be considered high risk and will be divided into two categories:

1) AI systems that are used in products falling under the EU’s product safety legislation . This includes toys, aviation, cars, medical devices and lifts.

2) AI systems falling into specific areas that will have to be registered in an EU database:

  • Management and operation of critical infrastructure
  • Education and vocational training
  • Employment, worker management and access to self-employment
  • Access to and enjoyment of essential private services and public services and benefits
  • Law enforcement
  • Migration, asylum and border control management
  • Assistance in legal interpretation and application of the law.

All high-risk AI systems will be assessed before being put on the market and also throughout their lifecycle.

General purpose and generative AI

Generative AI, like ChatGPT, would have to comply with transparency requirements:

  • Disclosing that the content was generated by AI
  • Designing the model to prevent it from generating illegal content
  • Publishing summaries of copyrighted data used for training

High-impact general-purpose AI models that might pose systemic risk, such as the more advanced AI model GPT-4, would have to undergo thorough evaluations and any serious incidents would have to be reported to the European Commission.

Limited risk

Limited risk AI systems should comply with minimal transparency requirements that would allow users to make informed decisions. After interacting with the applications, the user can then decide whether they want to continue using it. Users should be made aware when they are interacting with AI. This includes AI systems that generate or manipulate image, audio or video content, for example deepfakes.

On December 9 2023, Parliament reached a provisional agreement with the Council on the AI act . The agreed text will now have to be formally adopted by both Parliament and Council to become EU law. Before all MEPs have their say on the agreement, Parliament’s internal market and civil liberties committees will vote on it.

More on the EU’s digital measures

  • Cryptocurrency dangers and the benefits of EU legislation
  • Fighting cybercrime: new EU cybersecurity laws explained
  • Boosting data sharing in the EU: what are the benefits?
  • EU Digital Markets Act and Digital Services Act
  • Five ways the European Parliament wants to protect online gamers
  • Artificial Intelligence Act

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level 3 english essay exemplars

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