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The Complete Guide to Weather Data

by Brenna Dilger , on February 3, 2022

What is weather data?

Weather data is information that tracks and predicts weather conditions and patterns. Weather data tells a story about the state of the atmosphere in a particular location over a specific period of time by measuring several different parameters, including temperature, air quality, wind speed, and precipitation level. 

Types of weather data 

Weather data can cover information about large geographical areas, small geographical areas, the past, the future, the present, and the earth as a whole. The most common weather data subcategories are:

  • Local weather data vs global weather data  

Local weather data is information about weather conditions in a specific localized area, such as a county or city. When you check your city’s daily forecast before heading out the door each morning, you are looking at local weather data. Global weather data, on the other hand, covers weather and climate patterns for the entire planet. Some examples of this are tracking global temperature or measuring wind patterns between continents. 

  • Real-time weather data vs historical weather data

Real-time weather data gives you the most up-to-date information on weather conditions as they are occuring. This is how you can keep track of any changes in the weather day-to-day and even hour-to-hour. Historical weather data takes you into the past. It provides intelligence on weather patterns and conditions from previous days, months, years, and even decades.

How is weather data collected and measured?

Weather data is generally collected by meteorologists who are experts at measuring, analyzing, and predicting weather conditions and patterns. The data being collected by modern cutting-edge equipment such as satellite signals, airport observation stations, drone technology, and mapping devices has allowed for the collection of amazingly accurate and current weather data. 

Most weather data is collected by using thermometers to measure temperature, barometers to measure air pressure, radar to measure rain or snow locations and movements, wind vanes to measure wind directions, anemometers to measure wind speed, transmissometers to measure atmospheric visibility, and hygrometers to measure humidity. Weather satellites are also used frequently to track everything from snow cover to smog levels to ocean tidal patterns. Radiosondes, which are balloons that measure atmospheric characteristics as they move through the air and communicate that data via radio, can measure temperature, pressure, and humidity, and wind speed and direction.

How can organizations use weather data?

Many different industries use weather data for a range of business applications. Departments ranging from sales to marketing to legal operations can use weather data to make informed decisions about investment forecasting, energy load planning, supply chain management, business intelligence applications, freight distribution needs, and several other aspects of business affected by the weather. A few examples of business uses for weather data are:

  • Weather Data & Logistics  

Weather data is the golden ticket when it comes to staying on schedule with travel and deliveries. Organizations can make informed logistics decisions and minimize risk by using real-time weather data to determine which routes will have the most favorable weather conditions and which ones pose more of a risk. Companies can plan safe and efficient freight or haulage delivery routes months (or even years) in advance by using accurate forecasting from collected weather data. 

Being able to determine and plan weather-friendly routes ahead of time helps companies avoid the cost and headache of cancellations or delays due to rain, sleet, snow, etc. When your business plans for the best routes and consistently completes deliveries on time without being slowed down or re-routed, it reflects to customers and business partners that your organization is dependable.

  • Weather Data & Marketing 

Using weather data to make predictions about buyer behavior is one way to avoid sinking costs into unproductive campaigns and also tailor your products and services to the current experience of your audience. Staying informed on the weather and factoring it into marketing initiatives can only yield better strategies and results when it comes to reaching and engaging with your targeted audience.

For instance, if you’re a coat manufacturer, your product generally brings in the most revenue when the weather is cold or snowy, so you would want to run seasonal marketing and advertising campaigns in the winter months of the year to maximize your ROI. To use another example, if you operate a water park that is open during the summer months, adverse weather conditions could impact your day-to-day sales. No one wants to go to the water park on a rainy or gloomy day. Weather-triggered advertising could be used to track day-to-day weather data and allow marketers to only pay for ad space when the weather is sunny and warm enough to attract customers.

  • Weather Data & Travel 

Several industries, particularly that involve tourism or travel, use weather data to make predictions about consumer demand. Using weather data, it’s possible to accurately predict when demand amongst travellers will spike or drop in specific locations. This allows many businesses to make smarter decisions when it comes to marketing and operational strategies. 

For example, hotels will allocate their resources more effectively if they can predict when they will have more visitors. A hotel in Florida won’t have as many customers during the height of a bad hurricane season just like a hotel in Arizona won’t have as many visitors during heat waves. 

Industries can also use this information to schedule company travel more effectively for conferences, meetings, and other business events by identifying and avoiding periods of risky or undesirable weather conditions.

Buying weather data

There are several different attributes of weather data that are commonly collected and are purchasable. Generally, data providers will provide data points that include localized or global information on: temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, and cloud coverage. You can also find data on things like pollen concentration in the air, solar radiation, and natural disasters. 

Data collaboration platforms like Narrative make it easy to discover and buy weather data. Narrative’s data collaboration platform provides buyers with a range of data types, including weather and climate data, that allows businesses to make better predictions about everything from investment management to event planning. 

Selling weather data

If your organization has valuable and accurate weather data, you could be generating an entirely new stream of revenue for your company by monetizing that data. Narrative’s Data Shops enables businesses to quickly and easily launch an ecommerce data business without spending significant time and resources. Your weather data could be ingested, packaged, and accessible through a custom ecommerce storefront in just a few days, even if you have little to no technical expertise. 

The AWIS Weather Services Data Shop , an ecommerce data shop created by AWIS and powered by Narrative, is one example of a weather data shop on the platform that is filled with over 30,000 real weather observations from all over the world. After using Data Shop’s intuitive tools and workflows to stand up their data business, AWIS's VP of Advanced Technology, Tim Risner, described Narrative's data commerce platform as a “unique” platform that is able to “give AWIS Weather Services the competitive edge we need to provide quality weather observations to those industries that need real world weather data." 

Discover and buy weather data products on the Narrative Data Streams Marketplace or learn more about how Narrative makes selling data sources fast and easy .

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11.8: Collecting Weather Data

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Weather forecasts are better than they ever have been. According to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), a 5-day weather forecast today is as reliable as a 2-day forecast was 20 years ago! This is because forecasters now use advanced technologies to gather weather data, along with the world’s most powerful computers. Together, the data and computers produce complex models that more accurately represent the conditions of the atmosphere. These models can be programmed to predict how the atmosphere and the weather will change. Despite these advances, weather forecasts are still often incorrect. Weather is extremely difficult to predict because it is a complex and chaotic system.

To make a weather forecast, the conditions of the atmosphere must be known for that location and for the surrounding area. Temperature, air pressure, and other characteristics of the atmosphere must be measured and the data collected.


A simple wall-mounted digital thermometer

Meteorologists use barometers to measure air pressure. A barometer may contain water, air, or mercury, but like thermometers, barometers are now mostly digital. A change in barometric pressure indicates that a change in weather is coming. If air pressure rises, a high pressure cell is on the way and clear skies can be expected. If pressure falls, a low pressure cell is coming and will likely bring storm clouds. Barometric pressure data over a larger area can be used to identify pressure systems, fronts, and other weather systems.

Weather Stations

Weather stations contain some type of thermometer and barometer. Other instruments measure different characteristics of the atmosphere such as wind speed, wind direction, humidity, and amount of precipitation. These instruments are placed in various locations so that they can check the atmospheric characteristics of that location. According to the WMO, weather information is collected from 15 satellites, 100 stationary buoys, 600 drifting buoys, 3,000 aircraft, 7,300 ships, and some 10,000 land-based stations. The official weather stations used by the National Weather Service is called the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS).


Radiosondes is a balloon that measures atmospheric characteristics, such as temperature, pressure, and humidity as they move through the air. Radiosondes in flight can be tracked to obtain wind speed and direction. Radiosondes use a radio to communicate the data they collect to a computer. Radiosondes are launched from about 800 sites around the globe twice daily to provide a profile of the atmosphere. Radiosondes can be dropped from a balloon or airplane to make measurements as they fall. This is done to monitor storms, for example, since they are dangerous places for airplanes to fly.

A radar image of a hurricane approaching Florida.

Radar stands for Radio Detection and Ranging. A transmitter sends out radio waves that bounce off the nearest object and then return to a receiver. Weather radar can sense many characteristics of precipitation: its location, motion, intensity, and the likelihood of future precipitation. Doppler radar can also track how fast the precipitation falls. Radar can outline the structure of a storm and can be used to estimate its possible effects.

Weather satellites have been increasingly important sources of weather data since the first one was launched in 1952 and are the best way to monitor large scale systems, such as storms. Satellites are able to record long-term changes, such as the amount of ice cover over the Arctic Ocean in September each year.

You can see where clouds are developing, long often long before showers and thunderstmorms are visible on radar.

The other type of satellite commonly used in weather forecasting is called a Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES). These types of satellites fly much lower to the earth, only about 530 miles, and orbit the planet pole-to-pole. You’ve probably seen these satellites at night when you see one crossing the sky. Look for their direction and odds are they are moving northward or southward toward each pole.

Just like the weather satellites on the news, you’ve seen these images often when you are looking at natural disasters like hurricanes or volcanic eruptions, wars like have occurred in Afghanistan, Iraq, or recently in Syria. Even the Malaysian flight that “disappeared” in the Indian Ocean for weeks was ultimately discovered using polar orbiting satellites. Common types of these satellites include: Landsat , MODIS , and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM).

Numerical Weather Prediction

700 mb geopotential height and relative humidity forecast by the United States numerical weather prediction model NGM.

The most accurate weather forecasts are made by advanced computers, with analysis and interpretation added by experienced meteorologists. These computers have up-to-date mathematical models that can use much more data and make many more calculations than would ever be possible by scientists working with just maps and calculators. Meteorologists can use these results to give much more accurate weather forecasts and climate predictions.

In Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP), atmospheric data from many sources are plugged into supercomputers running complex mathematical models. The models then calculate what will happen over time at various altitudes for a grid of evenly spaced locations. The grid points are usually between 10 and 200 kilometers apart. Using the results calculated by the model, the program projects weather further into the future. It then uses these results to project the weather still further into the future, as far as the meteorologists want to go. Once a forecast is made, it is broadcast by satellites to more than 1,000 sites around the world.

NWP produces the most accurate weather forecasts, but as anyone knows, even the best forecasts are not always right. Weather prediction is extremely valuable for reducing property damage and even fatalities. If the proposed track of a hurricane can be predicted, people can try to secure their property and then evacuate.

Weather maps

Weather maps , also called synoptic maps , simply and graphically depict meteorological conditions in the atmosphere from a spatial perspective. Weather maps may display only one feature of the atmosphere or multiple features. They can depict information from computer models or from human observations.

On a weather map, important meteorological conditions are plotted for each weather station. Metorologists use many different symbols as a quick and easy way to display information on the map.

Thumbnail for the embedded element "How to read a synoptic chart"

A YouTube element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:

Once conditions have been plotted, points of equal value can be connected by isolines. Weather maps can have many types of connecting lines. For example:

  • Isotherms , likes connecting points of equal temperature. They spatially show temperature gradients and can indicate the location of a front. In terms of precipitation, what does the 0 ºC (32 ºF) isotherm show?
  • Isobars are lines of equal average air pressure at sea level. Closed isobars represent the locations of high and low pressure cells.
  • Isotachs are lines of constant wind speed. Where the minimum values occur high in the atmosphere, tropical cyclones may develop. The highest wind speeds can be used to locate the jet stream.

Surface weather analysis maps are weather maps that only show conditions on the ground .

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  • PowerPoint and Presenting Stuff

Weather in PowerPoint

By Kurt Dupont

The question most often asked: What will the weather be today? Weather is omnipresent in our society. You see weather information in your newspaper, weather apps on your phone, you can track rain and thunderstorms online and more. No wonder that weather information is a must-have for your  digital signage  screens. People want to be informed about current weather conditions and forecasts.

DataPoint can help you with that. DataPoint is a PowerPoint add-in that allows you to display information in real-time from databases and other data stores. Weather APIs and weather sources are included via XML, JSON, and dedicated providers. DataPoint can connect to free weather APIs and is even equipped with a professional weather provider for free. This professional DataPoint weather provider collects current weather conditions, today’s forecast, and the forecast for the next 10 days.

Weather in PowerPoint

How does it work?

Simply select the weather data provider in DataPoint and set the city that you would like to monitor. You have options to return the temperatures in Celcius or Fahrenheit , and measurement in Metric or Imperial . The weather status can be display in various languages.

DataPoint Weather in PowerPoint Set City

And you can choose a weather icon set if you don’t want to use the word ‘Sunny’ but use an icon or weather pictogram instead. We support 4 weather icon sets in DataPoint:

  • Colored icons
  • White icons
  • Black icons
  • Animated GIFs

And optionally, you can install our  Full HD Weather Expansion Pack  for full-screen videos for the background. With these full HD images, you can set the full background of a slide to the type of weather that can be expected. This is looking very professional and brings your PowerPoint slideshow or digital signage to the level of a weather channel of your national TV.

The data preview of the weather information looks like this.

DataPoint Weather in PowerPoint Preview weather data

Here are some previews on the different weather icon sets that you get with DataPoint. A preview of the icons that are used when you choose to use the colored icon set.

DataPoint Weather in PowerPoint colored weather icon set

And the white icons. We had to select the files so that you can see the white icons on the white background.

DataPoint Weather in PowerPoint white weather icon set

The full icon set with black icons.

DataPoint Weather in PowerPoint black weather icon set

And here’s a preview of the professional-looking animated GIFs. You don’t see it here on the image, but they are completely animated like videos.

DataPoint Weather in PowerPoint animated GIFs weather icon set

And the optional Full HD Weather Expansion Pack for full backgrounds, with nice animations .

DataPoint Weather in PowerPoint Full HD weather icon set

So after specifying the city, the units, and the icon set, you can start linking text boxes and pictures of a slide to this real-time weather data.

Link a text box to weather information

Select a normal PowerPoint text box and click DataPoint ; then the Text box button. Set the connection to your weather connection, and choose a column that you want to show from the list.

The data columns that can be used at text boxes are:

Current weather conditions:

  • Weather code,
  • Description,
  • Temperature,
  • Feels like temperature,
  • Wind speed,
  • Wind direction,
  • Precipitation,
  • Visibility,
  • Pressure, and

For today’s forecast:

  • Day of the week,
  • Minimum and maximum temperature,
  • Sunrise, Sunset, Moonrise, Moonset, and the

For the 10 day forecasts, you will columns:

  • Minimum and Maximum temperature,
  • Sunrise, Sunset, Moonrise, Moonset,
  • Total hours of sun, and the

DataPoint Weather in PowerPoint Text box linking

Link a picture to weather information

To show a real-time weather icon or weather picture, you have to start with a normal static inserted image on your slide. So, access the Insert tab of the Ribbon, click the Pictures button, and browse to a dummy image that you can insert on your slide. With this picture selected, click DataPoint, Picture button, and choose to connect this picture to the value of a corresponding picture reference column. The typically weather icons or images are stored in the columns named NowWeatherIcon, TodayWeatherIcon, D1WeatherIcon, D2WeatherIcon, … D10Weathericon.

In case you want to use a combination of small weather icons and the full HD animated GIFS as a background image, then you have to create 2 weather connections pointing to the same city, but using different icon sets to accomplish this objective.

DataPoint Weather in PowerPoint Picture linking

Professional Weather Slides in PowerPoint

With this DataPoint Weather data provider, professional looking icons are nice, and the great features of PowerPoint, you have no limitation to build your own real-time weather slides for your digital signage screens or information screens.

Start your free 15 day trial of DataPoint .

Kurt Dupont

He started by working at airports worldwide to set up airport databases and flight information screens. This evolved to become the basis for PresentationPoint .

The views and opinions expressed in this blog post or content are those of the authors or the interviewees and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of any other agency, organization, employer, or company.

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Big Data Analytics in Weather Forecasting: A Systematic Review

  • Review article
  • Published: 28 June 2021
  • Volume 29 , pages 1247–1275, ( 2022 )

Cite this article

  • Marzieh Fathi 1 ,
  • Mostafa Haghi Kashani 2 ,
  • Seyed Mahdi Jameii   ORCID: 2 &
  • Ebrahim Mahdipour 1  

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A Correction to this article was published on 20 July 2021

This article has been updated

Weather forecasting, as an important and indispensable procedure in people’s daily lives, evaluates the alteration happening in the current condition of the atmosphere. Big data analytics is the process of analyzing big data to extract the concealed patterns and applicable information that can yield better results. Nowadays, several parts of society are interested in big data, and the meteorological institute is not excluded. Therefore, big data analytics will give better results in weather forecasting and will help forecasters to forecast weather more accurately. In order to achieve this goal and to recommend favorable solutions, several big data techniques and technologies have been suggested to manage and analyze the huge volume of weather data from different resources. By employing big data analytics in weather forecasting, the challenges related to traditional data management techniques and technology can be solved. This paper tenders a systematic literature review method for big data analytic approaches in weather forecasting (published between 2014 and August 2020). A feasible taxonomy of the current reviewed papers is proposed as technique-based, technology-based, and hybrid approaches. Moreover, this paper presents a comparison of the aforementioned categories regarding accuracy, scalability, execution time, and other Quality of Service factors. The types of algorithms, measurement environments, modeling tools, and the advantages and disadvantages per paper are extracted. In addition, open issues and future trends are debated.

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Fathi, M., Haghi Kashani, M., Jameii, S.M. et al. Big Data Analytics in Weather Forecasting: A Systematic Review. Arch Computat Methods Eng 29 , 1247–1275 (2022).

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Received : 27 December 2020

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Visual Crossing Weather

Visual Crossing Weather

Articles, videos, and documentation to help you get the most from Visual Crossing Weather

How do I add weather data into Microsoft PowerPoint?

We are going to walk you through building a PowerPoint that has a graph of your current forecast. We will utilize the ability to pull Visual Crossing Weather Data directly into your PowerPoints and have them update the forecast everytime you open it.

Weather data provider

We are going to use a number of techniques to include the weather data into our Microsoft PowerPoint. The technique we are focusing on is inserting a live web query link into a PowerPoint Slideshow so the weather forecast can update automatically. Before we can start including the weather data into our slides, we need a provider that will provide the weather data in a format suitable for Microsoft PowerPoint. For that we will be using  Visual Crossing Weather Data  as the weather data services product allows for easily viewing, downloading and web query access to both historical weather data and live weather forecast data.

If you don’t have an account, you can simply sign up for a free trial for  Weather Data Services . For help on getting started with the Weather Data Services page, see  Getting Started With Weather Data Service .

Now we have an easy way to find weather data, we will open a blank PowerPoint Presentation.

Creating Our Basic Graph

After you open your blank presentation, you can delete the default slide contents or create a new slide such that is doesn’t have any content on the slide. Next, from the ‘Insert’ menu choose the ‘Chart’ icon which will open a window from which you will select the ‘Line’ chart type, then choose the ‘Line with Markers’ icon. Finally we will click ‘OK’ at the bottom of our page.

Create a Line Graph

We now have our first chart:

Default Line Graph

The first thing you may notice is that an embedded Excel workbook named ‘Chart in Microsoft Powerpoint’ is associated with our chart and will contain all of the data you need to create your graph. However the initial version of editing in Excel is too basic for our needs. To open the full Excel editor simply click on the ‘OpenInExcel’ button at the top of the Excel workbook.

Open Excel for Editing

You will notice that a full instance of Excel will open with the chart data in ‘Sheet 1’. You can Delete this sheet later after we load our weather data.

Next we will work on loading in weather data. To do this click on the ‘Data’ tab in Excel, Choose the ‘From Web’ icon and Excel will open an entry box for you to enter a Web Query URL.

Load Weather Data

At this point we will take a slight detour from PowerPoint and Excel so that we can get a URL to fetch our weather data. To do this we will use the Visual Crossing Weather Data Service by visiting the weather data service page:

On this page you can login with your account or sign up for a trial. Once you are logged in, the page will request that you add a location for the weather query. We choose ‘Add Manual’ and enter in Herndon, VA as our weather location. Next we will choose the ‘Forecast’ option and we will choose the ‘Day’ interval to get daily forecast data and then we will submit our query by clicking on the ‘Request Weather Data’ button.

Build Weather Query

You should now see a 15-day forecast view for your location. Next we need to click on the ‘Query API’ button at the top of your forecast page where we can copy our URL that represents the query we just built. Click on the ‘Copy full query’ button to put the URL into your Copy/Paste buffer.

Copy URL Query String

Now that we have our URL String copied we can paste in the string into our Excel window that requested a URL string to fetch our weather data as shown above. Click ‘OK’ and then click ‘Load’ to finish the query loading process. NOTE: You may be asked about security warnings as well as the fact that formulas and references have changed. This is normal and you can click through these to see the result of your query. We can now rename our new sheet ‘Weather’ or something appropriate and delete our previous default sheet that PowerPoint provided.

Weather Data Fetch

The final step in connecting the chart to our weather data is to change the chart series definitions. We do this by clicking on the ‘Select Data’ button on the Ribbon Bar while our chart is selected. This will open an editor that allows us to define both Axis series. First choose ‘Edit’ for the ‘Legend Entries Series’ and then select the table data from Address through temperature as seen by the red box below. Then choose ‘Edit’ for the ‘Horizontal Axis Label’ and choose the dates in column B called ‘DateTime’.(don’t choose the date column header as we only need the dates. This selection is highlighted by the purple box below. You should see the following:

Change Chart Series

After clicking ‘OK’ you should now see the following chart results with Temperature on the Y-axis with 3 series of Temperature data (Min, Max, Temperature) with our forecast dates on the X-axis.

First Forecast Chart

Now we just need to format and save our PowerPoint

Basic Chart Formatting

First we will change our Chart Title to ‘Herndon Weather Forecast’. Next, to keep this exercise simple we will use a predefined style for our chart by using the ‘Chart Styles’ button to the right of the chart. Here we will choose a pre-formatted style that appeals to us, maximize the chart to match the slide and then adjust any fonts as necessary. Here is our result:

Our final Chart

We now have an attractive chart of forecast weather data being loaded live into our PowerPoint Presentation! Very powerful and it only took a few minutes to create. Finally we will make sure the query updates dynamically.

Refreshing your Query Data

There are many ways to trigger updates to our query data. Users can manually refresh on the data, your can code in buttons to refresh the data or you can set up an auto refresh policy. For this example we will choose the latter. To do this, we right-click on the chart and choose ‘Edit Data’. As we did before we will open the full Excel editor. Once opened in Excel, you should see your weather data as before. Now choose the ‘Data’ menu and ‘Connection Properties…’. In this menu, you can select the refresh policy that is your preferred style. We have chosen to refresh the data on opening of the docuement. Everytime this Presentation is opened, the latest forecast data will be fetched.

Data Refresh Policy

Using ML to predict the weather and climate risk

Alexandrina Garcia-Verdin

Geo for Environment Developer Advocate

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All beings on this planet are affected by atmospheric phenomena we call the weather . Because of this, humans have invented all sorts of measuring tools and luckily we have loads of weather observations. Today some weather observations are available on open clouds platforms . AI techniques to build improved predictive models have also made way using neural networks, called deep learning .

A couple of years ago, my colleagues in Google Research who study applying AI to weather and climate challenges, built a fantastic deep learning model called MetNet-2 . The model performs precipitation forecasts at an amazingly high spatial resolution of 1 kilometer , within a time resolution of 2 minutes , for up to 12 hours , outperforming traditional models . More specifically it can help forecast rainfall in a local region within a relatively short period .

In our 12 min YouTube episode of our People & Planet AI series , we dived into how to approach building a weather forecasting model using Google Earth Engine and Google Cloud . We also share a notebook for technical audiences to try out. The total cost of building this sample model was a total of less than $1 (as of this publishing date). 

This article is a quick summary .

Table of Contents

Physics based vs deep learning weather models, how to build a model with google cloud & earth engine.

Try it out!

If we want to understand the Earth at very high resolution, these are very large datasets. Using Google’s cloud platforms, we can download these large datasets and make them available to everybody who wants to study this work

Jason Hickey, Google AI for Weather & Climate

Historically, weather forecasting is done using physics-based models. These methods require high computational requirements and are sensitive to approximations of the physical laws on which they are based.

Applying machine learning to nowcasting, allows us to increase the accuracy and speed of making these predictions. Deep learning models can be built to find weather patterns of cloud behavior by training it with satellite imagery. This means a model does not try to reproduce entire weather systems via simulations, but instead is trained to focus its compute power on seeing visual patterns from a mosaic of pixels . You can say this is similar to how our eyes work . Such advances have also enabled other projects such as Dynamic World , which helps granularly measure changes on the Earth .

Furthermore, pairing this technique with powerful data processing hardware like GPUs and TPUs , helps users get more accurate predictions at a fraction of the cost and time .

To get started , you will need an account with Google Earth Engine which is free for non-commercial entities and a Google Cloud account which has a free tier if you are just getting started for all users. I have broken up the products you would use to build a model by their function .

The model is for weather forecasting on a very short term period of up to 2 and 6 hours , this is known as Nowcasting .

The architecture for training and deploying our Nowcasting model begins with our inputs (the data we will use that is centralized in Earth Engine on precipitation ( GPM ), satellite images ( GOES-16 ), and elevation ). It ends at our outputs , which are the labels we want the model to make predictions of (millimeters of precipitation, the range of rain or snow per hour).

Dataflow is a data processing service that helps speed up the export process from hours to minutes using the Earth engine’s High-volume Endpoint . We typically use stratifiedSample to gather a balanced amount of points per classification , but because we are working with regression, we have to make buckets for our labels into classification types. 

TIP : If you are knew to some of these terms (i.e. regression or classification), I recommend checking out our 9min intro to deep learning video .

We do this by turning all our numeric labels into integers so they all fall into a classification bucket. We chose 31 buckets that represent 0 to 30 millimeters of precipitation per hour .

Note we choose to make 2 predictions, one at 2 and 6 hours in the future . But you can make as many as desired. And in terms of the amount of inputs needed , the more past data the better, but we have found that at least 3 input points are needed to give enough context to make any predictions in the future.

Next we write a script to train the model in Google’s machine learning platform called Vertex AI , using PyTorch (an ML library).  We chose to use 90% of our downloaded dataset for training the model and 10% for later testing the model’s accuracy on data it has never seen before. We can eventually host the model into Cloud Run , which is a web hosting service .

This was a quick overview of how we would approach building a weather forecasting model using deep learning techniques and Google products. If you would like to try it out, check out our code sample here on GitHub (click “ open in colab ” at the bottom of the screen to view the tutorial in our notebook format or click this shortcut here ).  It’s broken up into 4 notebooks , in case people wish to skip to specific parts, otherwise you can start from notebook 1 and finish to the 4th.

Using Colab enables y ou to see all the code we used , or you can alternatively run the code live by clicking the “ play ” icon (you can enter your desired account credentials).

Thank you for your passion in using machine learning for environmental resilience . If you wish to follow more of our future content. You can find us on Twitter and YouTube .

Measuring climate and land changes with AI

In this People & Planet AI episode, we celebrate the amazing launch of a geospatial project called Dynamic World, which maps the entire planet into different categories to track changes in ecosystems with precision. We then explore how to build an AI model like Dynamic World’s using Cloud.

By Alexandrina Garcia-Verdin • 7-minute read

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Global Surface Temperature Dataset Updated

Artificial intelligence improves vital global climate monitoring dataset.

Ocean waves crashing on rocky shore.

How do we measure the temperature of the Earth? There are actually two different kinds of measurements needed because Earth is made up of land and water. Temperature on land is recorded by weather stations all over the world. Ocean temperatures are measured by on-site instruments (in situ) like buoys, ships, and uncrewed vehicles. When combined together, the data provide a full picture of the Earth’s temperature, including change over time.

NOAAGlobalTemp is the authoritative dataset used to assess observed global climate change. NOAAGlobalTemp combines long-term sea surface (water) temperature (SST) and land surface (air) temperature datasets to create a complete, accurate depiction of global temperature trends and to identify temperature anomalies (different-from-average temperatures).

NCEI switched to an updated version of NOAAGlobalTemp today with the release of the January 2024 Global Climate Report . For the new version, NCEI scientists created an artificial neural network (ANN) method that replaces the traditional empirical orthogonal teleconnection (EOT) approach for the surface air temperatures over land and the Arctic Ocean. This new method improves the accuracy of surface air temperature reconstruction. Improvements were larger in the Southern Hemisphere—especially Antarctica—and larger before the 1950s, which is directly associated with the availability of observations.

The ANN approach outperforms the EOT method, particularly in the observation-sparse areas, which can be illustrated by an example for Antarctica (figure below). The three panels in the top row show the number of ingested observation data in the lower left corner increased from day 4, to 8, and then to 16. The observations of the last day indicate a cold anomaly in this area. In the beginning when there were no observations in the area due to data delay, while the EOT method (middle row) failed to reconstruct the temperature, the ANN method (bottom row) successfully caught the cold anomaly. This result exemplifies the robustness of the ANN approach, which works reliably even in observation-sparse areas. 

The data of the August 2023 NOAAGlobalTemp in Antarctica generated on three days, September 4, 8, and 16, 2023, are respectively displayed in columns 1-3. Top row: input observation data; middle row: data reconstruction by EOT; bottom row: data reconstruction by ANN. In the Sept-04 run, there were no observations in this area due to data delay. In the next two runs, Sept-08 and Sept-16, the number of observations gradually increased. This result exemplifies the robustness of the ANN approach, which works reliably even in observation-sparse areas.

Supporting Global Climate Science

NOAAGlobalTemp consists of land surface air temperature (LSAT) records from the Global Historical Climatology Network-Monthly , and sea surface temperatures (SST) from the Extended Reconstructed SST , the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) , and the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP) . It has data from 1850–Present and is presented on a 5X5 grid. NOAAGlobalTemp is a key component of the Global Climate Report which is updated monthly. The global section of the Climate at a Glance tool was updated in mid-February 2024 to use the new version of the dataset.

Map of Land & Ocean Temperature Departure from Average for the globe in Jan 2024 with cooler areas shaded in blue and warmer areas shaded in red.

NOAAGlobalTemp has been used by multiple science organizations such as the World Meteorological Organization and in assessments, such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) State of the Climate reports. Private sector interests use the data for global climate monitoring and assessment, environmental research, and informational products and services for various industries and economic sectors, such as agriculture.

Supporting NOAA’s AI Strategic Vision

NCEI plays a critical role in each of NOAA’s strategic goals by maintaining the most comprehensive public archive of environmental data in the United States and equitably distributing scientific products that drive decision-making across sectors, supporting the new blue economy and climate-informed strategies. By improving NOAAGlobalTemp using an Artificial Neural Network system, NCEI is supporting NOAA’s Artificial Intelligence Strategy . To learn more about how NOAA scientists are using artificial intelligence to better understand the Earth’s environment, see the NOAA Center for Artificial Intelligence (NCAI) .

Reference: Huang, B., X. Yin, M. J. Menne, R. Vose, and H. Zhang, 2022: Improvements to the Land Surface Air Temperature Reconstruction in NOAAGlobalTemp: An Artificial Neural Network Approach. Artif. Intell. Earth Syst., 1, e220032, .

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NWS Wakefield Virtual/Online Presentations

Are you looking for presentations on all types of weather, climate, forecasting and he National Weather Service (NWS)? Are you teaching students about the weather? The NWS can visit your group and/or classroom via the Internet. NWS Wakefield is ready and able to teach and answer your weather questions. Whether it is learning about weather basics, severe weather, the sun, careers in earth Science, or any other topic, the NWS has you covered!  Use the form below to have staff members from NWS Wakefield join your group!

How does it work?

All you need to participate is an internet connection, a computer with speakers and a webcam with a microphone. With this setup your group(s), or multiple individuals from different locations can participate at once. We can arrange meetings through Google Meet, Skype, or other conferencing programs by arrangement.

What can we teach?

We can present on just about any weather related topic to any group. For schools we have several presentations we can give to your students. One is called  Weather Basics  (30-40 min) in which we cover where the weather comes from, cold/warm fronts, high/low pressure etc. This course is designed for late elementary school or middle school students, but can be tailored as needed. The second presentation covers  severe weather  (30-45 min) and some safety tips (all ages). If you prefer, you can simply have one of our meteorologsts meet with your group for a session called  Ask-a-Meteorologist  (30-60 min), in which we answer as many student questions time allows. Finally, we can present a Careers in Weather presentation for high school students (45 min). If you have special requests or other needs, please let us know in the comments section of the form below.

Do you have any pre-recorded or other online options?

We have a number of pre-recorded options available in our Education Series on our Youtube Channel . We have pre-recorded tours of our office, SKYWARN Weather Awareness class, and a handful of videos on a variety of topics. Check it out! If you have another topic you'd like to see, just let us know in the form below!

Some great online education resource include  Jetstream Online Weather School  and NOAA SciJinks

Sounds great! How do I sign up? 

Just fill out the form below and we will get in touch with you and figure out how we can best help meet your needs!

Please   Note:  Presentations may be canceled on short notice by the NWS Wakefield due to severe or hazardous weather. 



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Ice coverage nearly nonexistent across the Great Lakes, as the historical peak approaches

Well-above normal winter warmth across the Great Lakes has some lakes nearly (if not completely) ice free, when they should be approaching their seasonal highs.

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Noaa coral reef watch extends alert scale following extreme coral heat stress in 2023, u.s. climate summary for january 2024, february 2024 enso outlook: all along the la niña watch-tower, preliminary analysis says global warming more to blame than el niño for amazon’s ongoing record drought, u.s. climate outlook for february 2024, global climate dashboard, tracking climate change and natural variability over time, greenhouse gases, arctic sea ice, carbon dioxide, mountain glaciers, spring snow, incoming sunlight, surface temperature, popular sections.

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Educational framework for climate principles and concepts.


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Like a popular science magazine, News & Features offers stories, images, and videos for the science-interested public. From blogs, to FAQs, to long-read features, this section offers a deep dive into climate science and how climate change and variability affect what matters to us.

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Explore Maps & Data

Access to common climate maps, data, and tools. Search a dataset catalog, check the status of key environmental indicators with the Global Climate Dashboard, or browse the Data Snapshots collection to locate publication-quality images to grab and re-use.

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Teach Climate’s Teaching Climate section offers reviewed learning activities and curriculum materials, multimedia resources, and professional development opportunities for formal and informal educators who want to incorporate climate into their work.

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Build Resilience

A sister site to, the U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit provides a central repository of climate and environmental data, tools, resources, expertise, and case studies geared toward improving our nation’s capacity to adapt to a variable and changing climate.


Add Weather Forecast to PowerPoint Presentation

Add Weather Forecast to PowerPoint Presentation

Weather forecast can be embedded in PowerPoint presentations and this is something present in one of the lessons available in Microsoft in Education and Lesson plans. You can take a look at  Meteorologist for a Day . Here you will learn how to gather information from and embed the weather forecast in a PowerPoint presentation template that is provided for free and can be downloaded from Weather PowerPoint template .

Add Weather Forecast in PowerPoint Presentation

From this lesson we can learn how to embed the following information in a weather report.

Gather data for your weather report. Be sure to include:

  • Current conditions
  • Temperature
  • Precipitation
  • Current Doppler image
  • 5-day forecast

However, sometimes we need to embed real time weather and forecast information in PowerPoint so we can show real time forecast information to the audience.

How to embed real time weather in PowerPoint?

For live updates you can download and install a free PowerPoint addin named LiveWeb which let you embed webpages in your PowerPoint presentations. If you have security restrictions in your organization then this method may not be ok for you, in this case you can try a different alternative or even use a static weather information. This method requires Internet connection in order to display the web page. We will use LiveWeb to gather information from a publicly available weather forecast and prediction website like and then display the webpage in the PowerPoint slide.

Once you have installed the plugin, you can insert a new web page. Look for this dialog and add the URL for the weather information page that you want to embed.

Live Web

From you have many options. For example you can use the Weather API that has a monthly fee or you can embed a webpage.

If you want to embed the full web page, look for a city weather like New York weather and then copy the URL and paste it in the dialog above.

Then you can choose where to display the weather page in your slide.

Using Google Weather API

Another interesting approach to embed real time weather report in your PowerPoint presentation templates and backgrounds is to use the Google Weather API that is free. You can use this API however in this case we’d get an XML as an output so we need to process this result from Google Weather API and then embed it into the slides. A possible approach is this one suggested by vba2vsto which explain how to use or parse XML in PowerPoint using VBA.

When you query this URL:,ny

This will return a XML output like the following:

We can use different approaches to handle XML results in PowerPoint. We will see some of them very soon so stay tuned.

Programmableweb has a list of other 83 weather API’s available for you.

Free Editable Weather PowerPoint template

If you need to embed weather forecast information into a PowerPoint presentation, the free template provided by SlideHunter can be helpful. It is a free Weather PowerPoint template with a modern design and editable elements that will let you customize the slide and prepare awesome weather information or weather reports to an audience. It is great for example if you are showing an agenda to audience and want to show them how’s the weather like today or this week.

Weather PowerPoint template free download

This template is provided for free and once you download it you can customize the slide elements, for example to change the weather from cloudy to sunny. Alternatively, you can download other free weather PowerPoint templates from our catalog, to prepare presentations on forecast, weather situations and more.

We will send you our curated collections to your email weekly. No spam, promise!

presentation of weather data



The Weather is Always Changing. So Does Our Weather Source.

Feb 3, 2021 | DataPoint , DataPoint Real-time Screens , Dynamic elements

You are probably using our DataPoint or Dynamic Weather plugin to display real-time weather information on your television, and information screens. Our plugins are using an internet-based weather API to get the weather information from, behind the scenes. Recently, we had to stop the Dark Sky Weather API because it was taken over by Apple, and we selected another weather API. But it turned out that the data provided by this weather API was (maybe for some locations only) not accurate enough. Some of our users reported a significant difference between actual outside temperatures, compared to the actual temperatures reported by the weather API. Since we try to deliver good software, we also find it important that we deliver weather data that is correct. We are paying for this weather data, so, it has to be good.

We want to inform you that as of now, our software DataPoint and Dynamic Weather products, are using the new weather API with better weather data.

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    This professional DataPoint weather provider collects current weather conditions, today's forecast and the forecast for the next 10 days. How does it work? Simply select the weather data provider in DataPoint and set the city that you would like to monitor.

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