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Gender Based Violence Essays Example

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Violence , Goals , Physical Abuse , Women , Gender , Development , Domestic Violence , Society

Words: 2250

Published: 03/01/2020


Impacts of Gender based violence on International Development

Gender based violence refers to the violence that is experienced in the course of cross gender interactions. However, history has been in such a position that, gender based violate refers to the violence that is normally passed on women. In the societal setting, it happens that there are instances that lead to the mistreatment of a certain group at the expense of another group. In a nutshell, gender based violence is an instance that cannot be labeled as one that affects a particular society; however, it is a phenomenon that cuts across all cultures. In essence, gender based violence cuts across all countries as well as classes. The old myth that gender based violence was only a practice of the poor and the lowly in the society has been overtaken by the events that keep on happening in the world. As a matter of fact, Gender based violence is an instance that has found positions in the society to an extent that it has ended up being a social issue (Naekery, 2013, pp. 4-34). In essence, as it will be seen in this discussion, Gender based violence affects the manner in which international development operates. In these regards, international development depends upon the provisions that, equality is emphasized between various kinds and groups of people. In these regards, most countries especially those that are located within the sub-Saharan Africa, have been known for having instances that touch on the position of women in light of the societal setting of these countries. At most instances, women have been subjected to circumstances that can better be described as inhuman and unfit for the existence of any one (Geraldine, 2010, pp. 23-56). As a matter of fact, such instances have made it impossible for these marginalized groups to effectively engage in commercial activities that are important for the development of international trade and commerce. In essence, not only women are the victims of this gender based baseless and violence. Men have also reported instances that surround on their exploitations by their fellow women. In most cases, the world has been characterized by instances that are oriented towards proliferating one group. What such societies fail to understand is that the society cannot be made up of different groups of people who hold similar positions when it comes to significance and relevance (Morna, 2009, pp. 34-37). The events that are oriented towards gender based violence are positioned in such a way that, they bring on board instances that reduce the ability of a certain society in concentrating in matters that are relevant to its developmental instances. Gender based violence in this case can best be described as domestic violence. In this regard, it is a common phenomenon that the victims of these events are often than not positioned at the front that makes it impossible for the victims of the occurrences. In the case where a woman is mistreated by his or her husband, it follows that, the same woman will be defrauded and prevented from engaging in instances that are either oriented on commerce or at some point are purposed to aid and abet the instances that are under the direct victimization of a person under the receiving end of the consequences of gender based violence. However, it should be regarded that these instances are not in abstract, they are based from stereotypical societies. Due to bias, it is obvious that women are taken as lesser beings that do not hold the same positions as the men. The effect of these instances that are directly oriented in domestic set ups of most nations is that, international development is oriented towards ensuring that, equality s maintained in almost all spheres of the world(Santos, 2013, pp. 90-134). It matters not the type or the position of gender, all that matters as far as it is in the eyes of international development, is the fact that we are all human beings. As a matter of fact, international l development cannot be achieved in the event people are not treated as equals in matters that matter most. In these cases, the events that matter most are those that touch on the direct lives of people. When taking a person who has been violated against as a result of societal positions on gender, it is obvious that such people do not have a positive mind to engage in the developmental projects, in the society. Domestic violence to the men means more than a mere act, it impacts heavily on how they view that the world. On the same note, gender based violence leads to a situation that leads to a society that is divided (Orbourne, 2010, pp. 45-50). In essence the division is facilitated by the fact that, the individuals who feel that the violence is directed to their sides unfairly will quit off from the other group which is mostly referred to as the oppressing group. How can we expense the international developmental aspects to develop? It is obvious that gender based violence hampers international development to a great extent. However, there is always a way to escape such instances that origin from the settings of the society, the instances that surround domestic violence can be abetted in the event measures are taken by the society in general so as to come to more realistic and holistic grounds that will provide for a society that shall lead to the development. In as far as this context is concerned; the development should be according to international standards. On the same note, international development is facilitated by factors that are oriented along, cooperation, social equality, inclusiveness and having a general goal that guides the activities that people engage in (Morrison, 2010, pp. 21-24). Wrangles in communities in as far as domestic violence is related, waste the time that people would be used to engage in more profitable activities such a trade. In essence, gender bade violence has been calling for a lot of revenues in problem solving instances. On the other hand, Gender based violate instances deviate the country in the strategies that it was making so as to develop and diversity its affairs. In these regards, it’s significant to denote that, a sober society in as far as inclusivity and development of social structures can greatly lead to the development of international positions and platforms (The Women Council, 2009, pp. 200-209). In a nutshell, it follows that, for international development to be adequately, realized, adequate measures are placed so as to abet the likely occurrence of Gender based violence. Gender based violence retrogresses nations and reduces the positions that can be achieved by such countries if the same conditions are kept constant In as far as he Millennium Development Goals are concerned, it follows that, millennium development goals are a significant hallmark towards the development of structures that are purposed towards the development of the society in as far as the social, economic and political set up. In these regards, Millennium Development Goals have pillars that support their functionality and manifestation in the society. As a matter of fact, millennium development goals that are purposed to extent to the year 2015 are purposed towards ensuring that, the society is well developed along spheres that center on the development. In these regards, it is significant to note that, the development takes the shape of social, economic and political areas(Nnowna, 2013, pp. 1-30). In as far as the social parameter, it follows that, the Millennium Development Goals are purposed to ensure that, the society well developed in the context of the provision of services such as hospitals and schools. With special consideration of these facilities, it follows that, the millennium development goals are oriented in such a way that calls for cooperation and inclusivity in all the areas that pertain these instances. As a matter of fact, it is unlawful for a certain group of persons to have access to schools at the expense of the other group. In essence, the groups form part and parcel of what is used by the millennium development goals in ensuring that, within a period of three or five years, our society will be diversified ad changed for the betterment of the future lives of our children. As a matter of fact, Millennium Development Goals are significant to ensure that, the economic position of our country is in order. In these regard, the Millennium Development Goals are positioned in such a manner that calls for ultimate cooperation from all sectors that forms part parcel of the developmental facets of any country. In fact, groups have been called for by the objects and the guidelines of this Millennium Development Goals that are oriented towards ensuring that we have a sane environment that is well oriented along parameters that are under the direct appreciated of all classes and Gender as equal(United Millenium Project, 2009, pp. 56-59). On the other hand, on the political arm that is supported by Millennium Development Goals, it follows that, millennium development goals are purposed to lead to a political situation that aims at ensuring that the society is founded along parameters that call for equality. As a matter of fact, in the provisions that guide the Millennium Development Goals, it is believed that, by the end of the period that ismarked by the entailment of the Millennium Development Goals, the country and the whole world should be well aware that all human beings are equal and do have a right to fight any injustices that are orchestrated at their expense. On the face of it, Millennium Development Goals are purposed to solve the existing instances such as Gender Based Violence. The MillenniumDevelopment Goals are not just mere puffs. However, they are positioned in such a way that, they are guided by the rule of law. In as far as leadership is oriented; Millennium Development Goals are directly proportional to sanity in the society. However, the issue of domestic violence cannot be taken as an issue that has gone beyond the tenability and the discretion of human beings, the following instances can be employed so as to abet and reduce on the impacts of domestic violence and the larger consideration, its end. It is researched by sociologists that Gender based violence is oriented along instances that guided by stereotypes and feelings of supremacy among different groups of people. In essence, the societies that we live are the biggest contributors to the attitudes and feelings that we hold towards other people. In these instances, the people under study are individuals that are either disadvantaged or fall victims of gender based violence. So as to reduce the Gender based violence, the society can be integrated in such a way that, both men and women interact in a way that that brings on board instances that support the idea that, both men and women are equal beings. As a result of discriminations, Violence manifests itself. As a matter of fact, if people’s minds and congenital positions in General are well catered for and given education that is relevant in this effect, it follows that the effects of Gender based Violence can be sorted. Similarly, Gender based violence can be solved if people are taught other methods of resolving conflicts. Violence is not the best decision that people can take at this time and age (Lombrone, 2009, pp. 34-58). Had it been in the medieval times when people knew not their rights, domestic violence and Gender based violence would be given a scope to that effect. However, today, the rule of law and laws that are along the provisions of the equity should adequately be utilized so as to lead to a sober society. On the same note, if strict laws are incorporated into the system that centers on ensuring that laws are abided to and those that breach the laws are punished, on the sane note, Gender based violence will be a gone case.


Geraldine , T. (2010). Gender-based Violence. New York: Oxfam Publishers. Lombrone, J. (2009). Global Crises, Global Solutions: Costs and Benefits. Kiel: Cambridge University Press. Morna, C. (2009). The Gender Based Violence Indicators Study: Botswana. Washington: African Books Collective Publishers. Morrison, A. (2010). Addressing Gender-based Violence in the Latin American and Caribbean Region: A Critical Review of Interventions. Washington: World Bank Publications. Naekery, K. (2013). Gender-based Violence and Public Health: International perspectives on budgets and policies. Chicago: Routledge. Nnowna, F. (2013). Millennium Development Goals: Achievements and Prospects of Meeting the Targets in Africa. Pretoria: African Books Collective Publishers. Orbourne, K. (2010). Gender Based Violence: Genocide in Rwanda. Kigali: GRIN Verlag. Santos, M. (2013). Consensus: combating gender based violence through Islam, tradition, and law. New York: Kachere Series. The Women Council. (2009). Gender-based violence: a resource document for services and organisations working with and for minority ethnic women. New York: The Women's Health Council Publishers. United Millenium Project. (2009). The Millennium Development Goals: A Latin American and Caribbean Perspective. Chicago: United Nations Publications.


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Table of Contents


Men`s violence that is directed to women is one of the main public health issues globally. Violence against women has transformed over the past four centuries from being a private affair that is rarely spoken off to an extent where issues of violence against women are discussed openly. According to the United Nations ,violence against women is defined as any act violence that is based upon the gender of an individual  and is likely to result to physical , sexual or mental harm or suffering of a woman (Women, U. N. 2015).Violence against women also involves being threatened, coerced or being denied liberty or basic rights either privately or publicly. WHO indicates that more than 34% of women worldwide have experienced some form of violence (World Health Organization, 2012). Violence against women is mostly caused by intimate partners or is usually sexually based. According to a survey conducted in the year 2013 by WHO through the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in collaboration with the Medical Research Council of South Africa found out that in every three women, one experiences either physical or sexual violence from their partners(Women, U. N. 2015). This paper therefore seeks to establish why decision making on health matters should be made based on critical economic thinking and analysis. Additionally, the paper also discusses ways in which social factors contribute to violence against women and how this can be solved through social-economic programs.

According to a special report of Human Rights Commission for violence against women, major strides have been made in the fight to end violence against women (Whitehead et al, 2016). Despite these efforts, mot much has changed and very few women have benefited from these campaigns. The strides have mainly been achieved in countries and areas where women are financially independent. In families and regions where poverty levels of high, a lot needs to be done in order to eradicate gender based violence.Poverty/income inequality is a major  economic factor which is attributed to violence against women. Women represent more than 70% of the people living in poverty worldwide (Dalal, 2011). This means that most women cannot afford their basic needs. According to the WHO, most women continue to work in harsh conditions where they face endless discrimination. The existing socioeconomic and cultural factors have increased vulnerability of women to violence, sexual exploitation and various injustices. Research indicates that men`s violence against women is higher among countries where there is widespread poverty compared to high income countries. According to the research 23.2% of intimate partners in high-income countries experience violence while women violence in low income countries stands at 37.7% (Levy & Sidel, 2013). Violence against women in countries developing nations is at 25.7%. from the above statistics, it is clear that there is a direct relationship between the level of income and violence on women(Levy & Sidel, 2013, p.g 286). One of the ways in which poverty among women has contributed to them being abused is that some men put women at their mercy economically and hence taking advantage of them.More than 35% of women who report violence depend on men financially. (Rahman, Hoque & Makinoda, 2011) Men take advantage of this situation and they physically abuse women even when small domestic issues arise in the family.

According to (Hughes, Bolis, Fries & Finigan,2015) , many women find that their home is the most dangerous place for them. He explains that this is due to the economic inequality which exists in the society. In today`s society, there are many cases where oppression and discrimination against women is prevailing and women are viewed to be of weaker gender. The society perception on women explains why a man with the same qualifications with a man is more than two times likely to secure a job at the expense of a woman (Hughes et al, 2015).Unemployment among women becomes high and this means that their levels of income are very low.Due to this reason, women end up becoming vulnerable and they get abused. For example, when many women in underdeveloped developed nations find it difficult to secure employment, they end up trying to seek employment in other countries (Jewkes,  Flood & Lang, 2015). The men take advantage of these women`s situation and traffic them to other countries promising to get them jobs elsewhere. Due to poverty and desperation, the women end up getting abused by men as they try to earn a better living(Jewkes et al, 2015). The women are abused both physically and sexually in the hands of men who sometimes end up making them sex slaves. This therefore strengthens the need to economically empower women to solve the public health problem of violence against women.

Poverty also contributes to the violence experienced by women. This is because, women who are poor find themselves working in very harsh and inhumane working conditions (García-Moreno et al, 2015). They work in this situations in order to make ends meet for the sake of their families. As women work in this harsh environment in occupations mostly occupied by men, they may come across men who are abusive towards women.  The women face discrimination due to their gender and they may end up getting physically abused by men(García-Moreno et al, 2015, P.g 117). These men could be sometimes their workmates or their bosses at the workplace.

Research also indicates that poor women are sexually abused by men with a promise of jobs or work-related favors. Other women are coerced by their bosses to engage in sexual acts and failure to accept their advances may lead to them losing their jobs. Additionally, women face high levels of discrimination when it comes to wages. According to DeKeseredy, (2011), there is huge disparity  in income between women working in the same job. A research conducted in US in the year 2018 indicated that most men in the same kind of jobs as women earn more than twice what women in the same positions earn. This discrimination in terms of earning makes women vulnerable to be abused by men.This therefore means that this is a serious public healthcare concern which should be addressed by getting women out of poverty.

Inequalities in terms of education also contribute to the public health problem of violence against women by men. Inequality in education has rendered women vulnerable to violence which is meted to them by men who are either their husbands or other men in the society (Ghosh, 2012) In many developing countries many women are not offered a chance to go to school and get education. This is partly due to culture as well as misconceptions in certain societies. There are many communities where women are not allowed to go to school and this greatly renders them to poverty due to lack of education (Gupta et al, 2015). When women are deprived of education, it denies them a chance for a better livelihood and it means that they will struggle to earn a decent income. Men therefore take advantage of the poor uneducated women and abuse them both physically and sexually.

According to Duflo, (2012), various improvements should be taken into consideration for the income levels of women to be improved  to help minimize cases of violence directed towards women. From the previous research, it has been found that poverty among women has contributed to violence against them. One of the ways in which this economic injustice can be addressed is by advocating education of the girl child. In underdeveloped countries, the difference between educated men and women can be as high as 80% (Ellsberg, et al. 2015). Boys go to school while girls are left to do domestic chores at home. Many girls are also married at an early age and hence they end up losing a chance to get quality education. It is therefore critical to address this social-economic issue in order to reduce poverty and reduce cases of violence against women (Ellsberg et al, 2015.P.g447). A lot of resources need to be allocated to carry out awareness campaigns on the need for education of women.when women get quality education, it em,powers them to become independent and hence they become less vulnerable to violence.

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Women can improve their income and avoid poverty by  starting their own businesses. Once women are able to establish alternative means of income apart from their salaries, they become financially independent. By becoming financially independent, it becomes difficult for men to take advantage of their economic situation and lure them into situations which exposes the women to all types of violence(Klugman et al, 2014). A woman who is financially independent is less likely to be trafficked unlike a person who is poor.

It is also critical that discrimination against women at workplace especially in regard to wages is abolished. When women get paid less for the same amount of work as men, there is a likelihood that men will feel superior and this may result to violence against women. Paying the same wages to women as those of men will economically empower women and hence they can be able to support their families even in situations where they decide to leave an abusive marriage (Semahegn & Mengistie, 2015).

Other ways in which the public health problem of men`s violence against women can be solved includes formation of women support groups. The women support groups could be critical in economic empowerment especially in rural areas in underdeveloped countries (True,2012). The women groups should be supported by the government and non-governmental organizations to help the vulnerable women become financially stable (Klugman et al, 2014). Some of the projects which could be carried by the support groups include;group farming activities and starting small businesses. Awareness campaigns should also be carried out to reduce discrimination and violence against women.


According to the United Nations defines violence against women as any act violence that is based upon the gender of an individual  and is likely to result to physical , sexual or mental harm or suffering of a woman. Violence against women also involves threats, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty either privately or publicly. According to WHO indicates that about 35% of women globally have experienced violence of any form. Violence on women is contributed by a variety of factors. Some of these factors could be cultural, economical or social problems. The paper begins with an analysis of the impact of low levels of income and poverty contributes to violence against women. Research from various researchers shows that women from families and countries which are poor/underdeveloped are more likely to experience violence. The issue of women receiving lesser wages as compared to men and how this contributes to violence against women has been discussed in this report. This report establishes the need of solving the public health issue of violence against women through critical economic thinking and analysis.


Dalal, K. (2011). Does economic empowerment protect women from intimate partner violence?.  Journal of injury and violence research ,  3 (1), 35.

DeKeseredy, W. S. (2011). Feminist contributions to understanding woman abuse: Myths, controversies, and realities.  Aggression and Violent Behavior ,  16 (4), 297-302.

Duflo, E. (2012). Women empowerment and economic development.  Journal of Economic literature ,  50 (4), 1051-79.

Ellsberg, M., Arango, D. J., Morton, M., Gennari, F., Kiplesund, S., Contreras, M., & Watts, C. (2015). Prevention of violence against women and girls: what does the evidence say?.  The Lancet ,  385 (9977), 1555-1566.

García-Moreno, C., Zimmerman, C., Morris-Gehring, A., Heise, L., Amin, A., Abrahams, N., … & Watts, C. (2015). Addressing violence against women: a call to action.  The Lancet ,  385 (9978), 1685-1695.

Gupta, J., Falb, K. L., Lehmann, H., Kpebo, D., Xuan, Z., Hossain, M., … & Annan, J. (2013). Gender norms and economic empowerment intervention to reduce intimate partner violence against women in rural Côte d’Ivoire: a randomized controlled pilot study.  BMC international health and human rights ,  13 (1), 46.

Hughes, C., Bolis, M., Fries, R., & Finigan, S. (2015). Women’s economic inequality and domestic violence: exploring the links and empowering women.  Gender & Development ,  23 (2), 279-297.

Jewkes, R., Flood, M., & Lang, J. (2015). From work with men and boys to changes of social norms and reduction of inequities in gender relations: a conceptual shift in prevention of violence against women and girls.  The Lancet ,  385 (9977), 1580-1589.

Klugman, J., Hanmer, L., Twigg, S., Hasan, T., McCleary-Sills, J., & Santamaria, J. (2014).  Voice and agency: Empowering women and girls for shared prosperity . The World Bank.

Rahman, M., Hoque, M. A., & Makinoda, S. (2011). Intimate partner violence against women: Is women empowerment a reducing factor? A study from a national Bangladeshi sample.  Journal of Family Violence ,  26 (5), 411-420.

Semahegn, A., & Mengistie, B. (2015). Domestic violence against women and associated factors in Ethiopia; systematic review.  Reproductive health ,  12 (1), 78.

True, J. (2012).  The political economy of violence against women . Oxford University Press.

Whitehead, M., Pennington, A., Orton, L., Nayak, S., Petticrew, M., Sowden, A., & White, M. (2016). How could differences in ‘control over destiny’lead to socio-economic inequalities in health? A synthesis of theories and pathways in the living environment.  Health & place ,  39 , 51-61.

Women, U. N. (2015).  Progress of the World’ s Women 2015-2016: Transforming Economies, Realizing Rights  (No. id: 7688).

World Health Organization. (2012).  Understanding and addressing violence against women: Intimate partner violence  (No. WHO/RHR/12.36). World Health Organization.

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I am Jack Williams, a Biochemist by profession. However, I developed a flair for writing while working on my Bio dissertations at university. So, I decided to take his passion to another level by stepping into the field of English essay writing. Ever since I have not only been learning the essentials of English writing but also been sharing my learning with students. My blog posts are intended to help not only students learn the technicalities of essay writing but also enable them to face related changes head-on. When I am not researching in my lab or sharing my valuable learning, you can find me playing soccer with my buddies or painting something that touched my heart and inspired me. 

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Essay on Gender Discrimination

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  • Jul 14, 2022

gender based violence essay 200 words

One of the challenges present in today’s society is gender discrimination. Gender discrimination is when someone is treated unequally based on their gender. Gender discrimination is not just present in the workplace but in schools, colleges and communities as well. As per the Civil Rights Act of 1964,  gender discrimination is illegal in India. This is also an important and common essay topic in schools and competitive exams such as IELTS , TOEFL , SAT , UPSC , etc. Let’s explore some samples of essay on gender discrimination and tips for writing an impactful essay.

Tips for Writing an Impactful Essay

If you want to write a scoring and deep impact essay, here are some tips for writing a perfect informative essay:

  • The most important and first step is to write an introduction and background information about and related to the topic
  • Then you are also required to use the formal style of writing and avoid using slang language
  • To make an essay more impactful, write dates, quotations, and names to provide a better understanding
  • You can use jargon wherever it is necessary as it sometimes makes an essay complicated
  • To make an essay more creative, you can also add information in bulleted points wherever possible
  • Always remember to add a conclusion where you need to summarise crucial points
  • Once you are done read through the lines and check spelling and grammar mistakes before submission

Essay on Gender Discrimination in 200 Words

One of the important aspects of a democratic society is the elimination of gender discrimination. The root cause of this vigorous disease is the stereotypical society itself. When a child is born, the discrimination begins; if the child is male, he is given a car, bat and ball with blue, and red colour clothes, whereas when a child is female, she is given barbie dolls with pink clothes. We all are raised with a mentality that boys are good at sports and messy, but girls are not good at sports and are well organised. This discriminatory mentality has a deeper impact when girls are told not to work while boys are allowed to do much work. This categorising males and females into different categories discriminating based on gender are known as gender discrimination. Further, this discriminatory behaviour in society leads to hatred, injustice and much more. This gender discrimination is evident in every woman’s life at the workplace, in educational institutions, in sports, etc., where young girls and women are deprived of their rights and undervalued. This major issue prevailing in society can be solved only by providing equality to women and giving them all rights as given to men.

Essay on Gender Discrimination in 300 Words 

Gender Discrimination, as the term signifies, is discrimination or discriminatory behaviour based on gender. The stereotypical mindset of people in the past has led to the discrimination that women face today. According to Kahle Wolfe, in 2015, women earned 83% of the income paid to men by working the same hours. Almost all women are not only discriminated against based on their salaries but also on their looks.

Further, most women are allowed to follow a certain dress code depending upon the work field and the dress women wear also decides their future career.

This dominant male society teaches males that women are weak and innocent. Thus women are mostly victims and are targeted in crimes. For example, In a large portion of the globe, women are blamed for rapes despite being victims because of their clothes. This society also portrays women as weaker and not eligible enough to take a stand for themselves, leading to the major destruction of women’s personalities as men are taught to let women down. This mindset of people nowadays is a major social justice issue leading to gender discrimination in society.

Further, gender-based discrimination is evident across the globe in a plethora of things, including sports, education, health and law. Every 1 out of 3 women in the world is abused in various forms at some point in their lives by men. This social evil is present in most parts of the world; in India, women are burnt to death if they are incapable of affording financial requirements; in Egypt, women are killed by society if they are sensed doing something unclean in or out of their families, whereas in South Africa baby girls are abandoned or killed as they are considered as burden for the family. Thus gender discrimination can be only eliminated from society by educating people about giving equal rights and respect to every gender.

Top Universities for Gender Studies Abroad

UK, Canada and USA are the top three countries to study gender studies abroad. Here’s the list of top universities you can consider if you planning to pursue gender studies course abroad: 

We hope this blog has helped you in structuring a terrific essay on gender discrimination. Planning to ace your IELTS, get expert tips from coaches at Leverage Live by Leverage Edu .

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Gender-Based Violence (Violence Against Women and Girls)

The World Bank

Photo: Simone D. McCourtie / World Bank

Gender-based violence (GBV) or violence against women and girls (VAWG), is a global pandemic that affects 1 in 3 women in their lifetime.

The numbers are staggering:

  • 35% of women worldwide have experienced either physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence.
  • Globally, 7% of women have been sexually assaulted by someone other than a partner.
  • Globally, as many as 38% of murders of women are committed by an intimate partner.
  • 200 million women have experienced female genital mutilation/cutting.

This issue is not only devastating for survivors of violence and their families, but also entails significant social and economic costs. In some countries, violence against women is estimated to cost countries up to 3.7% of their GDP – more than double what most governments spend on education.

Failure to address this issue also entails a significant cost for the future.  Numerous studies have shown that children growing up with violence are more likely to become survivors themselves or perpetrators of violence in the future.

One characteristic of gender-based violence is that it knows no social or economic boundaries and affects women and girls of all socio-economic backgrounds: this issue needs to be addressed in both developing and developed countries.

Decreasing violence against women and girls requires a community-based, multi-pronged approach, and sustained engagement with multiple stakeholders. The most effective initiatives address underlying risk factors for violence, including social norms regarding gender roles and the acceptability of violence.

The World Bank is committed to addressing gender-based violence through investment, research and learning, and collaboration with stakeholders around the world.

Since 2003, the World Bank has engaged with countries and partners to support projects and knowledge products aimed at preventing and addressing GBV. The Bank supports over $300 million in development projects aimed at addressing GBV in World Bank Group (WBG)-financed operations, both through standalone projects and through the integration of GBV components in sector-specific projects in areas such as transport, education, social protection, and forced displacement.  Recognizing the significance of the challenge, addressing GBV in operations has been highlighted as a World Bank priority, with key commitments articulated under both IDA 17 and 18, as well as within the World Bank Group Gender Strategy .

The World Bank conducts analytical work —including rigorous impact evaluation—with partners on gender-based violence to generate lessons on effective prevention and response interventions at the community and national levels.

The World Bank regularly  convenes a wide range of development stakeholders  to share knowledge and build evidence on what works to address violence against women and girls.

Over the last few years, the World Bank has ramped up its efforts to address more effectively GBV risks in its operations , including learning from other institutions.

Addressing GBV is a significant, long-term development challenge. Recognizing the scale of the challenge, the World Bank’s operational and analytical work has expanded substantially in recent years.   The Bank’s engagement is building on global partnerships, learning, and best practices to test and advance effective approaches both to prevent GBV—including interventions to address the social norms and behaviors that underpin violence—and to scale up and improve response when violence occurs.  

World Bank-supported initiatives are important steps on a rapidly evolving journey to bring successful interventions to scale, build government and local capacity, and to contribute to the knowledge base of what works and what doesn’t through continuous monitoring and evaluation.

Addressing the complex development challenge of gender-based violence requires significant learning and knowledge sharing through partnerships and long-term programs. The World Bank is committed to working with countries and partners to prevent and address GBV in its projects. 

Knowledge sharing and learning

Violence against Women and Girls: Lessons from South Asia is the first report of its kind to gather all available data and information on GBV in the region. In partnership with research institutions and other development organizations, the World Bank has also compiled a comprehensive review of the global evidence for effective interventions to prevent or reduce violence against women and girls. These lessons are now informing our work in several sectors, and are captured in sector-specific resources in the VAWG Resource Guide: www.vawgresourceguide.org .

The World Bank’s  Global Platform on Addressing GBV in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Settings  facilitated South-South knowledge sharing through workshops and yearly learning tours, building evidence on what works to prevent GBV, and providing quality services to women, men, and child survivors.  The Platform included a $13 million cross-regional and cross-practice initiative, establishing pilot projects in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Nepal, Papua New Guinea, and Georgia, focused on GBV prevention and mitigation, as well as knowledge and learning activities.

The World Bank regularly convenes a wide range of development stakeholders to address violence against women and girls. For example, former WBG President Jim Yong Kim committed to an annual  Development Marketplace  competition, together with the Sexual Violence Research Initiative (SVRI) , to encourage researchers from around the world to build the evidence base of what works to prevent GBV. In April 2019, the World Bank awarded $1.1 million to 11 research teams from nine countries as a result of the fourth annual competition.

Addressing GBV in World Bank Group-financed operations

The World Bank supports both standalone GBV operations, as well as the integration of GBV interventions into development projects across key sectors.

Standalone GBV operations include:

  • In August 2018, the World Bank committed $100 million to help prevent GBV in the DRC . The Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response Project will reach 795,000 direct beneficiaries over the course of four years. The project will provide help to survivors of GBV, and aim to shift social norms by promoting gender equality and behavioral change through strong partnerships with civil society organizations. 
  • In the  Great Lakes Emergency Sexual and Gender Based Violence & Women's Health Project , the World Bank approved $107 million in financial grants to Burundi, the DRC, and Rwanda  to provide integrated health and counseling services, legal aid, and economic opportunities to survivors of – or those affected by – sexual and gender-based violence. In DRC alone, 40,000 people, including 29,000 women, have received these services and support.
  • The World Bank is also piloting innovative uses of social media to change behaviors . For example, in the South Asia region, the pilot program WEvolve  used social media  to empower young women and men to challenge and break through prevailing norms that underpin gender violence.

Learning from the Uganda Transport Sector Development Project and following the Global GBV Task Force’s recommendations , the World Bank has developed and launched a rigorous approach to addressing GBV risks in infrastructure operations:

  • Guided by the GBV Good Practice Note launched in October 2018, the Bank is applying new standards in GBV risk identification, mitigation and response to all new operations in sustainable development and infrastructure sectors.
  • These standards are also being integrated into active operations; GBV risk management approaches are being applied to a selection of operations identified high risk in fiscal year (FY) 2019.
  • In the East Asia and Pacific region , GBV prevention and response interventions – including a code of conduct on sexual exploitation and abuse – are embedded within the Vanuatu Aviation Investment Project .
  • The Liberia Southeastern Corridor Road Asset Management Project , where sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) awareness will be raised, among other strategies, as part of a pilot project to employ women in the use of heavy machinery. 
  • The Bolivia Santa Cruz Road Corridor Project uses a three-pronged approach to address potential GBV, including a Code of Conduct for their workers; a Grievance Redress Mechanism (GRM) that includes a specific mandate to address any kinds gender-based violence; and concrete measures to empower women and to bolster their economic resilience by helping them learn new skills, improve the production and commercialization of traditional arts and crafts, and access more investment opportunities.
  • The Mozambique Integrated Feeder Road Development Project identified SEA as a substantial risk during project preparation and takes a preemptive approach: a Code of Conduct; support to – and guidance for – the survivors in case any instances of SEA were to occur within the context of the project – establishing a “survivor-centered approach” that creates multiple entry points for anyone experiencing SEA to seek the help they need; and these measures are taken in close coordination with local community organizations, and an international NGO Jhpiego, which has extensive experience working in Mozambique.

Strengthening institutional efforts to address GBV  

In October 2016, the World Bank launched the  Global Gender-Based Violence Task Force  to strengthen the institution’s efforts to prevent and respond to risks of GBV, and particularly sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) that may arise in World Bank-supported projects. It builds on existing work by the World Bank and other actors to tackle violence against women and girls through strengthened approaches to identifying and assessing key risks, and developing key mitigations measures to prevent and respond to sexual exploitation and abuse and other forms of GBV. 

In line with its commitments under IDA 18 , the World Bank developed an Action Plan for Implementation of the Task Force’s recommendations , consolidating key actions across institutional priorities linked to enhancing social risk management, strengthening operational systems to enhance accountability, and building staff and client capacity to address risks of GBV through training and guidance materials.

As part of implementation of the GBV Task Force recommendations, the World Bank has developed a GBV risk assessment tool and rigorous methodology to assess contextual and project-related risks. The tool is used by any project containing civil works.

The World Bank has developed a Good Practice Note (GPN) with recommendations to assist staff in identifying risks of GBV, particularly sexual exploitation and abuse and sexual harassment that can emerge in investment projects with major civil works contracts. Building on World Bank experience and good international industry practices, the note also advises staff on how to best manage such risks. A similar toolkit and resource note for Borrowers is under development, and the Bank is in the process of adapting the GPN for key sectors in human development.

The GPN provides good practice for staff on addressing GBV risks and impacts in the context of the Environmental and Social Framework (ESF) launched on October 1, 2018, including the following ESF standards, as well as the safeguards policies that pre-date the ESF: 

  • ESS 1: Assessment and Management of Environmental and Social Risks and Impacts;
  • ESS 2: Labor and Working Conditions;
  • ESS 4: Community Health and Safety; and
  • ESS 10: Stakeholder Engagement and Information Disclosure.

In addition to the Good Practice Note and GBV Risk Assessment Screening Tool, which enable improved GBV risk identification and management, the Bank has made important changes in its operational processes, including the integration of SEA/GBV provisions into its safeguard and procurement requirements as part of evolving Environmental, Social, Health and Safety (ESHS) standards, elaboration of GBV reporting and response measures in the Environmental and Social Incident Reporting Tool, and development of guidance on addressing GBV cases in our grievance redress mechanisms.

In line with recommendations by the Task Force to disseminate lessons learned from past projects, and to sensitize staff on the importance of addressing risks of GBV and SEA, the World Bank has developed of trainings for Bank staff to raise awareness of GBV risks and to familiarize staff with new GBV measures and requirements.  These trainings are further complemented by ongoing learning events and intensive sessions of GBV risk management.

Last Updated: Sep 25, 2019

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More than one in three women worldwide have experienced sexual and gender-based violence during their lifetime. In contexts of fragility and conflict, sexual violence is often exacerbated.

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The Great Lakes Emergency SGBV and Women’s Health Project is the first World Bank project in Africa with a major focus on offering integrated services to survivors of sexual and gender-based violence.

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Intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence are economic consequences that contribute to ongoing poverty. Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez, Senior Director at the World Bank, explains the role that social norms play in ...

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In conclusion, I would like emphasize that sexual violence poses an obstacle ...

In conclusion, I would like emphasize that sexual violence poses an obstacle to peace and security. It impedes women from participating in peace and democratic processes and in post-conflict reconstruction and reconciliation. As a tool of war it can become a way of life: once entrenched in the fabric of society, it lingers long after the guns have fallen silent. Many women lose their health, livelihoods, husbands, families and support networks as a result of rape. This, in turn, can shatter the structures that anchor community values, and with that disrupt their transmission to future generations. Children accustomed to acts of rape can grow into adults who accept such acts as the norm. This vicious cycle must stop, as we cannot accept a selective zero-tolerance policy. Today's adoption of resolution 1960 (2010), on sexual violence, is an important step in that direction. It is for that reason that Slovenia joined in co-sponsoring it.

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Gender-based violence in schools a significant barrier to the right to education

Worldwide an estimated 246 million children experience school-related violence every year. Unequal gender norms and power relations are a key driver of this violence, manifesting itself as bullying and physical abuse, corporal punishment, sexual and verbal harassment, nonconsensual touching and other forms of sexual assault.

School-related gender based violence (SRGBV) as ‘a serious barrier to achieving universal education’ was the subject of a panel discussion at the 60th Annual Conference for the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) in Vancouver, March 6-10.

Jenelle Babb, from UNESCO’s Section of Health and Education, was joined by representatives from USAID, University College of London’s Institute of Education, Concern Worldwide, Global Women’s Institute, and Promundo, to discuss gaps in knowledge around SRGBV, its impact on children’s well-being and educational outcomes, and effective solutions.

Under the theme, Envisioning schools free from gender-based violence: Using evidence for action, the panel explored the challenges and opportunities in research, programming, monitoring and evaluation of SRGBV; and some of the ways policy-makers and practitioners can address the issue.

More work needed to promote safe spaces

Babb told panel participants that while the subject of SRGBV has become more prominent in recent years, evidence shows that more work is needed on policy and regulatory frameworks that promote safe and inclusive learning spaces and a zero-tolerance approach to violence.

“We need to consider strengthening linkages among the many partners working on issues of school violence and childhood violence, applying a ‘gender lens’ to violence and interpersonal relationships and dynamics within the school setting,” she said.

Natko Gereš of Promundo-US said the education sector had a critical role to play in empowering all learners with transformative education that examines gender and social norms and power dynamics. He noted that violence is a defining feature in the lives of many men and boys in low and middle-income countries, shaping their concept of masculinity and their relationships with women.

“We need to understand how to create safe, violence-free learning environments where boys and girls have equal opportunities,” Geres said.

Sustainable Development Goals serve as framework

Dr Manuel Contreras Urbina of the Global Women’s Institute observed that: “The SDGs serve as an international framework against which countries will be obligated to develop evidence for reporting on indicators and targets on gender based violence”

In addition to learning new evidence on SRGBV policy and programming interventions from low and middle income settings, the session also highlights forthcoming resources including the new USAID SRGBV conceptual measurement framework and toolkit, and the soon-to-be-released Global Guidance on addressing SRGBV, jointly published by UNESCO and UN Women.

The panel discussion at the annual CIES conference was an effort of the Global Working Group on SRGBV, co-convened by UNESCO and the United Nations Girls’ Education Initiative (UNGEI).

  • School-related gender-based violence
  • Health education

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‘I'm not afraid of people anymore’: How training on gender-based violence changed attitudes in a Myanmar village

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Ma Shwe said she “was just a young girl” when an act of sexual violence perpetrated by a man from her village crushed her self-confidence and left her feeling terrified.

Ma Shwe, who is identified by a pseudonym to protect her identity, was raised in a small farming village in Myanmar with about 200 households. After the attack, she felt judged by her community, shamed, and outcast. 

“I was afraid to live in my environment, and so I left my home and village,” she said.

An illustration shows Ma Shwe and others in her community attending an awareness-raising session about gender-based violence on a digital learning platform.

She only felt safe enough to return when she found that the perpetrator had also left the village, and enough time had passed that it seemed clear he would not return. By then, Ma Shwe had a child, and she wanted to live with her family and raise her child in her home village. However, upon her return, she continued to feel judged by those around her, and as she dealt with the ongoing physical and mental health impacts of the violence, it was a daily struggle to feel safe and comfortable.

“I used to feel shy and afraid of people,” she said, “but there was a training in my village on gender-based violence and I attended. After the training I felt that I can accept being alive.”

Ma Shwe accessed that training and a range of services, including counselling sessions, with the support of a local women-led organization, one of several groups that UN Women works with across Myanmar to reach women and girls who have experienced or are at risk of experiencing gender-based violence. 

A representative from that organization said that, when Ma Shwe first approached the group, “she cried openly because of the comments from some people around her and every day was a time of worry and sadness for her.”

“However, she attended the awareness sessions and accepted that it was not her fault. In addition, she was able to regain her self-confidence and acceptance of her own existence as she received timely counselling sessions,” the representative said, asking that their name and organization not be made public for security concerns.

Ma Shwe also attended training courses and awareness raising sessions that were delivered through a digital learning platform. A wide range of people in the community, including men and boys, used that platform and attended the in-person sessions, which aimed to break down harmful social norms and attitudes that perpetuate violence and discrimination against women and girls.

“After the training, I saw that the views of the people around me had changed a lot”, Ma Shwe said. “This change is important. It makes people feel equal and understand everyone has rights, so they learn to value each other.”

UN Women works with other UN agencies, including the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and local partner organizations to prevent gender-based violence and offer response services across Myanmar.

From 2021 to 2023, UN Women and UNFPA reached more than 16,000 women through a joint programme on preventing and responding to gender-based violence. Of those women, 1,290 received legal advice and assistance, psychosocial support, and referrals to other services. More than 800 women-headed households received cash assistance and food, and also accessed services including mental health and psychosocial support.

As fighting in Myanmar continues to escalate and the economic, political, and humanitarian crisis worsens, civilians’ coping capacities are stretched to the limit. A new joint programme supported by the Government of France will provide additional support for UN Women and UNFPA to deliver services aimed at preventing gender-based violence in communities affected by the conflict, including livelihood support and access to emergency services.

The country’s broader crisis is perpetuating gender disparities in employment and increasing vulnerability to trafficking and gender-based violence including sexual exploitation, harassment, and intimate partner violence, which Myanmar women have said is the most common form of gender-based violence in their communities. 1

Women’s organizations in Myanmar play a vital role in preventing and responding to gender-based violence by providing services at the community level, bolstering women’s empowerment, and reaching those at risk of being left behind.

While Ma Shwe continues to struggle with the impact of the violence that was perpetrated against her, she now feels more comfortable in her community. She said she has hope for the future and even dreams of one day opening her own business.

She said, “I feel like I've got my own life back, and I'm not afraid of people anymore.”

  [1] Findings from focus group discussions conducted for 2023 Multi Sectoral Needs Analysis

  • Domestic violence/interpersonal violence
  • Rape/sexual assault
  • Ending violence against women and girls

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16 women championing the fight against Gender-Based Violence in East and Southern Africa

Date: Friday, 19 November 2021

16 women collage colored

At least 1 in 3 women have experienced violence, globally. At least one in three young women in Africa are married before they turn 18. About 200 million girls and women have been subjected to female genital mutilation. Gender-based violence is the most pervasive violation of human rights, but it can and must be prevented.

From Ms. Asseny Muro, 72, one of the pioneers of the Beijing Platform for Action (1995), to Glanis Changachirere, Zimbabwean women’s rights activist and founding Director of the Institute for Young Women Development (IYWD), to young Munnira Katongole, a South African activist fighting for social change, the UN Women East and Southern Africa inaugural list of 16 outstanding women activists is packed with inspiration, resilience, and passion.

The list was released to mark 16 days of activism campaign on 25 November to 15 December 2021, acknowledging and celebrating the social, economic, cultural, and political achievements of women and their unceasing efforts to fight for gender equality.

Drawn from all spheres of life, the 16 women are just a small fraction that represent hundreds of women in the region who are at the forefront of ensuring that women and girls are safe and protected from all forms of violence.

Caren Omanga - Kenya

Caren Omanga has been a social activist for over 20 years. After working six years as a teacher, she felt she could do more to counter the injustices she had witnessed from an early age. She is now a human rights defender in Kisumu County, helping women and many survivors of gender-based violence to achieve justice. She used to trade second-hand clothes to fund her activism, arranging sit-ins at police station and marches through the city. “I’ve seen a lot of human rights violations in the slums where I grew up. Life in these places is not conducive for human rights”, says Caren.

I’ve seen a lot of human rights violations in the slums where I grew up. Life in these places is not conducive for human rights”.

gender based violence essay 200 words

Photo: Luke Horswell UN Women

Rose Christine Adikini – Uganda

Ms. Rose Christine Adikini, 56 years old, is  Lead Councillor of Persons Living with Disabilities in Tororo District, Uganda.  Rose participated in a UN Women-supported leadership training run by the  National Union of Women with Disabilities of Uganda (NUWODU) . In this role, she serves as a central point of contact for women and girls with and without disabilities to report violence. She also represents the interests of her peers at community engagements and consultations. Her advocacy has led to the installation of ramps in buildings across Tororo and surrounding sub-counties, improving accessibility for people with disabilities. Women with disabilities are  at greater risk of violence  and discrimination due to social exclusion, limited mobility, a lack of support structures and communication barriers.

Rose Christine Adikini

Rose Christine Adikini. Photo: Eva Sibanda/UN Women

I have always acted as a voice for women with disabilities in my community.

 Asseny Muro – Tanzania

Ms. Asseny Muro. Photo: Tsitsi Matope

Ms. Asseny Muro, 72, is one of the pioneers of the Beijing Platform for Action (1995) and spent more than half her life championing the rights of women in Tanzania. In 1993, Muro was one of the founders of the Tanzania Gender Networking Programme (TGNP), a leading women’s rights and feminist organization where she is currently the Chairperson of the Board. She is also a Champion of the Generation Equality Campaign by UN Women, and a Steering Committee Member of the Tanzania Chapter of the African Women Leaders’ Network (AWLN). A firm believer that the aspirations of the Beijing Platform for Action are relevant today, Muro calls on young women and girls to demonstrate their capacity and interest to take over the baton from previous generations.

Hirut Yibabe - Ethiopia

Hirut Yibabe, the Executive Director of Good Samaritan Association inside the compound of the shelter located in Addis Ababa. Photo: UN Women/Fikerte Abebe

Hirut Yibabe is a 59-year-old Ethiopian, co-founder and Executive Director of Good Samaritan Association (GSA). GSA is one of UN Women’s implementing partners. It provides shelter and health care services focusing on gender-based violence victims of human trafficking and migrant returnees and provides psychological counselling, medical treatment as well as basic life, and business skills trainings.

Rufaro Chakanetsa – Zimbabwe 

Rufaro is a co-founder of Taking a Stand Against Gender-based Violence , a campaign that runs advocacy initiatives through platforms such as WhatsApp group platforms and community-based forums and distributes knowledge-building materials for behavior change. These platforms share knowledge on referral pathways, safe shelters, and national hotlines.

“ I speak for women’s rights because I want to help end practices, belief systems and customs that seem acceptable in our society and have been passed on for generations, yet they violate women’s rights.”

gender based violence essay 200 words

Photo: UN Women/Getrude Chigerwe

I speak for women’s rights because I want to help end practices, belief systems and customs that seem acceptable in our society and have been passed on for generations, yet they violate women’s rights.”

Christie Banda - Malawi

Hirut Yibabe, the Executive Director of Good Samaritan Association inside the compound of the shelter located in Addis Ababa. Photo: UN Women/Fikerte Abebe

Malawi Christie Banda, 28-year-old activist against gender-based violence , heads the Foundation for Civic Education and Social Empowerment organization (FOCESE), a key ally of the global Spotlight Initiative (the EU-UN partnership to eliminate all forms of violence against women and girls by 2030) in Malawi. As part of Spotlight, UN Women Malawi works with partners like FOCESE to build powerful alliances at the community level and change attitudes and behaviors related to gender-based violence and harmful practices.

Natalie Robi Tingo - Kenya 

Natalie Robi Tingo. Photo: Jenny Riva

Natalie Robi Tingo, 28, is the Founder and Executive Director of Msichana Empowerment Kuria, a women-led community-based organization in rural Kenya that has since 2015 worked to end female genital mutilation (FGM) by tackling its root causes and empowering women and girls.

Munnira Katongole – South Africa

Munnira Katongole is a 17-year-old South African activist fighting for social change and climate justice. She is part of the South African Institute of International Affairs’ Youth Policy Committee on climate.

“Millions of women and girls are being abused and killed every day, simply for existing in this white, patriarchal society. How can one not speak up for gender equality? I’m an unapologetic, radical, Black feminist. Seeing young girls suffer and even die, completely unnecessarily, fuels my activism.”

Millions of women and girls are being abused and killed every day, simply for existing in this white, patriarchal society. How can one not speak up for gender equality? I’m an unapologetic, radical, Black feminist. Seeing young girls suffer and even die, completely unnecessarily, fuels my activism.”

gender based violence essay 200 words

Photo courtesy of Munnira Katongole

 Mzuri Issa - Tanzania

Issa had just begun her career as a journalist in the early 90s, when she learned about a law that discriminated against women and girls who got pregnant out of wedlock. The penalty could include a prison sentence for the pregnant woman. She reported on the issue for years, and worked alongside media partners and activists, calling for the review of the law. The law was finally changed in 2005.

With funding and technical support from UN Women, TAMWA-Zanzibar has been working with religious leaders and grass-roots communities since 2010, to change cultural norms, attitudes and practices that create barriers to women’s empowerment – including their access to leadership and decision-making positions.

“I work in advocacy to change perceptions that lead to discrimination against women and [to uplift] women’s status in society,” she says .

gender based violence essay 200 words

Photo: UN Women/Hanna Mtango

I work in advocacy to change perceptions that lead to discrimination against women and [to uplift] women’s status in society.”

Glanis Changachirere - Zimbabwe 

Glanis Changachirere, Zimbabwean women’s rights activist, is the founding Director of the Institute for Young Women Development (IYWD) and the founding Coordinator of the African Women Leaders Forum. She is also a member of the Steering Committee of the Zimbabwean chapter of the UN Women-supported African Women Leaders Network.

Raised in the deeply patriarchal, rural province of Mashonaland Central, Zimbabwe, Changachirere explains that it was the pain she experienced trying to assert that girls were equal to boys and deserved equal education and career opportunities that motivated her to start IYDW at the age of 26: “As young women, we need to redefine ourselves, both to ourselves and also to the society they need to see a young women in a different way altogether,”  she says .

As young women, we need to redefine ourselves, both to ourselves and also to the society they need to see a young women in a different way altogether,"

gender based violence essay 200 words

Photo: Courtesy of Glanis Changachirerea

Marie Goretti Ndacayisaba – Burundi

Marie Goretti Ndacayisaba. Photo: UN Women/Ryan Brown

Marie Goretti Ndacayisaba is the Executive Director of Dushirehamwe (meaning, ‘let’s be together for peace’) in Burundi. She promotes women’s role in peacebuilding .

Dushirehamwe is supported by UN Women through the Women’s Peace and Humanitarian Fund. Between 1993 and 2005, the civil war in Burundi killed almost 300,000 people and left hundreds of thousands displaced. In 2015, political unrest plunged the country back into protracted crisis. In October 2017, Ndacayisaba spoke at a side event at the United Nations, co-organized by UN Women, Impunity Watch and Oxfam IBIS, with the support of the Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the United Nations. Her story shows the importance of engaging women in peacebuilding efforts at all levels to fulfill the vision of Sustainable Development Goal 16, which promotes peaceful and inclusive societies.

Thelma Kaliu – Malawi

Bogolo Joy Kenewendo, 33, is an African economist and leader. Photo courtesy of Bogolo Kenewendo

Thelma Kaliu is a young feminist and an active member of the Young Feminist Network of Malawi . She is currently the Project Coordinator of the Spotlight Initiative project under Plan International, Malawi. In 2019, before the COVID-19 pandemic, Thelma attended the launch of the Malawi Chapter of the African Women Leaders Network (AWLN) and was excited about the growth of a movement that was enthusiastically embracing young African women. Supported by the EU-UN Spotlight Initiative, the largest effort to eliminate violence against women and girls worldwide, the AWLN network comprises over 500 African women across generations and sectors.

Josephine Chandiru Drama - South Sudan

Josephine Chandiru Drama, a South Sudanese women’s rights activist with more than 10 years of experience on provision of access to justice for women and girls, is the Director of STEWARDWOMEN and the chair of the Rule of Law Technical Reference Group of the National Gender-Based Violence (GBV) Sub-Cluster in South Sudan. She has supported the prosecution of the first child marriage case in South Sudan and is a champion of Maputo Protocol having mobilized 40 South Sudanese civil society organization to amplify the campaign towards the ratification of the Women’s Rights Protocol. She received the Women, Peace and Security Fellowship Award for African Women in 2013-2014 from the African Leadership Centre/Kings College London, UK.

A side from her legal profession, her interest in GBV work emanated long when she was growing up. I challenged my dad to return his cows because I saw my mother was no longer enjoying her marriage, Chandiru  Drama says. As a young woman, she worked very hard and became passionate about pursuing perpetrators to provide accountability for victims of GBV, majority of whom are women and girls. “As women of South Sudan, we must stand up and say enough is enough by doing every small thing possible to deter violence against women and girls”, she says.

gender based violence essay 200 words

Photo courtesy of Josephine Chandiru

As women of South Sudan, we must stand up and say enough is enough by doing every small thing possible to deter violence against women and girls."

Júlia Wachave - Mozambique

Júlia Wachave

Júlia Wachave was appointed in 2021 as Executive Director of the Association for the Protection of Women and Girls (PROMURA) in Cabo Delgado.

Jurist by profession, she defines herself as a social activist, feminist and human rights defender mainly in the area of Gender Based Violence (GBV), since 2001. She is also a member of the Cabo Delgado NGO Fórum (FOCADE), “Fórum Mulher” Women´s Network and International Federation of Women in Legal Careers (FIFCJ). In the past, she was Coordinator of the Association of Women in Legal Careers (AMMCJ) in Cabo Delgado.

In 2015, she won the SADC Gender Protocol National Summit award at the thematic of Constitutional and Legal Rights, through the presentation of the practice of revision of the Penal Code.

Julia has in been the forefront of ground operations to provide assistance to internal displaced women in northern districts of Cabo Delgado where they were forced to abandon their places of origin because of the armed conflicts.

Julia in partnership with UN Women, Provincial Social Services among other partners provided first response to women in transit centers with dignity kits.

She participated at several forums held at the central level to report to critic situation of women in resettlement center, and the challenges they face as they wait for allocation to new resettlement centers.

Zainab Adam Sheen - Sudan

Zainab Adam Sheen

Zainab Adam Sheen is a feminist activist and vice president of the Federation of Persons with Disabilities in Sudan.


Khowla Mohamed - Somalia

Khowla Mohamed

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Analysis and Conclusion on Gender Violence Research Paper

Understanding structural roots of gender violence, consequences of structural violence, human trafficking and displacement, women trends in war, conclusions and recommendations, works cited.

In 1993, the Canadian Panel on violence against Women coined one of the greatest statements on violence and intimidation against women. To this panel, violence against women in the society draws inspiration from inequality structures in the patriarchal nature of many societies. Therefore, developing a sustainable solution to this ill depends on the ability of leading elites to develop adequate equality and equity structures between men and women in the society. Until then, gender violence will remain elusive. In the Eastern Europe’s case, there exists a link to detach to gender violence against women in the post war error from the real drivers of the vice (Hepburn and Simon 57). More emphasis seems to get diversion towards the structural rooting of violence in the society. During and after the war, women suffered in the hands of men as sex pets, and commercial sex workers. Much focused aimed at clearing men of the vices committed rather than seeking justice for the women in question. The root driver of this school of thought draws inspiration from the conservative societies that believe women lack equal position in the society and should play a subordinate role to men.

In similarity to the universality and pervasiveness of conflicts and wars, gender violence spreads out across geographical, cultural, social, and ethnic borders. Even though the international community and human right watchdogs continue to play a vital role in fighting gender violence, the intensity of its persistence remains high (Andrijasevic 42). Gender violence across these boundaries harbors relatively similarly consequences and trends with women as the major casualties. Such an observation, based on the historical manifestations of violence, draws inspiration from the socio-economic and political contexts within which women exist. Social stratification and male-dominated societies produce these gender discrimination tendencies within class, caste, and patriarchal social relations in which male individuals enjoy super power over female counterparts. Even though direct and physical violence against women lead to physical injury and physiological trauma, use of women as sex pets and commercial sex workers during the disintegration of the Soviet Union created a social and psychological damage to the vulnerable women during and after the wars. In the Bosnia and Serbia conflict, women used as sex slave remained in psychological trauma giving up their desire to fight for dignity and self-esteem. This violence, coupled with the embedment social gender stratification normalized the violence leading to loss of dignity in women (Gallagher 72).

In war and post war economies, women and children often represent the casualties. The consequences of war on women are far reaching ranging from physical injury to psychological traumatic situations (Wilson, Friedman, and Lindy 91). Since inequality sustained the during the fall of Soviet Union and the Bosnian-Serbian conflict , the cumulative impacts of these conflicts stemmed inequality within the society with women. Denial of fundamental human rights and exploitation of sex values in women remained the great drivers of violence during these two conflicts. Violence set up within societies with conservative opinions about the roles of women presented great impact on the women suffrage especially in mental, sexual, and reproductive health (Dudley, Silove, and Gale 33). Forced sex led to unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. The worst part of this violence occurs during the pregnancy stages of a victim with injuries on fetus and infants. Fatal situations during this war caused miscarriage among women leading trauma and other mental health problems such as depression, fear, anxiety, and obsessive behaviors.

According to statistics at the United Nations, conservative estimates indicate that more than two million people are victims of human trafficking. Among the casualties of the vice are migrants and refugees. War refugees and other individual fleeing their countries for safety often land in the hands of greedy and egocentric individual ready to earn some money from the desperate state of the affected individuals. Women and children represent the social groups suffering from this vice. Soldiers and other corrupt security officers in the immigration and security sectors act as the ambassador of human trafficking (Downe 65).

At the United Nations, data on human on human trafficking indicate that sexual exploitation of women and young girls from war torn regions are high. According to the Norwegian discourse on the sex purchase law, human trafficking becomes rampant in areas of war in which gender and social structures in which women serve as subordinates to their male counterparts in the society. Dang and Suphang (77), in their analysis of wartime sexual violence argue that sexual orientation in the society plays a role in in human displacement and sexual abuse of women. In the piece, they maintain that in societies with conservative opinions about the role of women in relation to those of the male counterparts, stands high chances of women and girl child exploitation in times of war compared to societies with relative equality between the two genders. During the fall of Soviet Union and the post-integration conflicts, women and girl in the region suffered not only physical and emotional problems, but also trans-locational effects. Several young girls and women, on the run for safety, landed on the hand of human trafficking leading to more damage.it is also important to note that women and girls presented the highest number of casualties of the refugees in the Bosnian war with Serbia. The role of men in the military and the militia groups partly explains the gender distribution in many refugee camps. In a setting where women and girls congest a given refugee camps, limited resources cause a state of disparity. For this reason, women become desperate to earn a living from any activity. For this reason, human trafficking often takes an easy course as some women willingly move into the activity for the sake of leaving a congested camp (Yakushko 173).

In the wake of globalization and technological advancements, the demands for resources continue to rise. Several conflicts over natural resources and other factor arise across the world forcing a large number of people into displacement. For this reason, there has been an increase in the number of refugee camps. As communism ended, the demand for control of resources to serve the rising independent states set precedence for increased number of conflicts (Tepfenhart 89). Several countries broke out together but disintegrated due to lack of agreement over control of resources. As the number of international conflicts increased, several vices occur within the displacement facets of the affected populations. With little disregard to the plight of the displaced refugees, there exists a disconnect between the human rights group striving to serve and rehabilitate the depressed refugees and the unscrupulous soldiers and other institutional officials seeking to earn few bucks from the desperate situations of the refugees. In the Bosnia war with Serbia, several women displaced from their original homes based on ethnicity and violence got refuge in the camps under military protection. In such camps, some soldiers not only subjected them to sexual exploitation but also engaged in further displaced through human trafficking. The trauma resulting from loss of family during war and conflict coupled with the separation of women from their cultures offered a prerequisite for trauma and depression (Tepfenhart 93).

In the history development of wars, women and girls as casualties stand out as one of the uniform phenomenon. Smock (23) in her analysis of the plight women and young girls argue that media, and political leaders continue to unravel the relatively quiet and unexplored tragic stories of rape during wars. Even though rape exists in the society with or without wars, in the war context it takes a relatively traumatic course as victims often suffer without any legal proceedings against the perpetrators. Apart from the absence of judicial proceedings against the perpetrators of this vice, nepotism, favoritism, and tribalism sets out as a factor of rape and sex slavery in many war camps (Downie 63). Women in each society have a culture and way of life. In the war camps the war camps, things change. It remains a norm for women to play subordinate roles to the soldiers and serve as slaves. Women with relatively masculine and stronger genes get better treatment and service in order to sire children with abilities to serve in the military. Women with weak and unwanted traits on the other hand act as sex pets and customers to the human trafficking syndicate with the camps.

In the Bosnia-Serbian war, there existed not only rape but also forced reproduction of perpetrators genes to eliminate the genes considered inferior in the society (Kourvetaris 163). Despite the biological believes and facts about children being a balance of the genes from the biological parents, the Serbian perpetrators of rape and gender violence in this war believed that the genes from the perpetrators dominated the child’s biological characteristics. The Serbians therefore, in their superiority complex’ war with the Bosnians, exploited this fact on Muslim women in the war camps with the aim of cleansing the inferior Muslim minority. In the refugee camps during this war, the Serbian soldiers raped and abused women refugees until death or conception. The victims who conceived were further concentrated in the camps to ensure zero abortion procurement (Marchak 16). Through these inhumane acts, the Serbian soldiers aimed at increasing their ethnicity and eliminating the Bosnians. On the Bosnian side, more than two thousand women from the Serbian communities underwent the same activities during the war (Vlachova and Biason 63).

Sexual objectification theory remains evident in this explanation of rape and ethnic cleansing in the refugee camps during the Bosnia-Serbia war. Evidence show that soldiers from both camps used the women as an object of developing a new and superior identity irrespective of the traumatic problems the women went through. As objects of developing a new and superior identity, the soldiers raped, maimed, and in some cases killed women who failed to conceive. As described the objectification theory that sees women as objects and means to an end for the male in the society, the Bosnia-Serbian war presents a great example in which this theory stands out as the leading school of thought especially among the soldiers (Fairchild and Rudman 347).

Structural rooting of gender violence in the society plays a vital role in the culture and bearing of women roles in the society. In order to develop a society devoid of gender violence, the change towards equality and equity among the gender remains overdue. Gender empowering and creation of social cultures that appreciate the role and differences in the gender act as a basis for stemming out gender violence (Bronstein 71). In times of war and conflict, human rights and social activists need highly developed systems of monitoring the military activities taking place in the refugee camps to ensure protection of women and vulnerable person living in the camps.

Structural and cultural violence towards women remains evident in many societies. Inequalities and discrimination against women in the education, employment, and leadership opportunities presents an ample environment increased violence and gender disparities. Given the patriarchal nature of many societies, there is need for sensitized women focused development to stem out the culture of discrimination. Developing and in depth understanding of the root drivers of gender and violence against women offer the opportunities for unmasking the gruesome patriarchal structures which encourage women victimization (Schumacher and Slep 235). In the objectification theory, scholars need to develop adequate points against such a school of thought and encourage women to embrace their dignity and live in equality with the male counterparts. Offering women equal opportunities with the male counterparts improves their abilities to withstand violence and the traumatic problems associated with war and effects of war.

In the social empowerment and capacity building perspective, women need to develop sustainable income earning activities to reduce overdependence on their male counterparts. Economic independence offers basis for social independence thus reducing vulnerability of women during war (Smolak and Murnen 510). As some organization and international non-governmental organization continue to develop women empowerment programs through community groups’ investment and small business enterprises, there remains a need for improved funding of women empowerment initiates to reduce the level of women dependency on male earnings.

Andrijasevic, Rutvica. “Beautiful Dead Bodies: Gender, Migration And Representation In Anti-trafficking Campaigns.” Feminist Review 86 (2007): 24-44. Palgrave Macmillan . Web.

Bronstein, Carolyn. Battling Pornography: The American Feminist Anti-Pornography Movement, 1976-1986 . Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2011. Print.

Dang, Nguyen, and Chanthawanit Suphang. Uprooting People for Their Own Good?: Human Displacement, Resettlement and Trafficking in the Greater Mekong Sub-Region . Hanoi: Social Sciences Pub. House, 2004. Print.

Downie, Pamela. “Two Stories of Migrant Sex Work, Cross Border Movement and Violence.” Canadian Women Studies 25.2 (2006): 61-66. Print.

Dudley, Michael, Derrick Silove, and Fran Gale. Mental Health and Human Rights: Vision, Praxis, and Courage . Oxford: Oxford UP, 2012. Print.

Fairchild, Kimberly, and Laurie Rudman. “Everyday Stranger Harassment and Women’s Objectification.” Social Justice Research 21.3 (2008): 338-357. Print.

Gallagher, Tom. The Balkans in the New Millennium: In the Shadow of War and Peace . London: Routledge, 2005. Print.

Hepburn, Stephanie, and Rita Simon. Human Trafficking Around the World: Hidden in Plain Sight . New York: Columbia University press, 2013. Print.

Kourvetaris, George. “Ethnonationalism and subnationalism: The case of former Yugoslavia.” Journal of Political and Military Sociology 24.2 (1996): 163. Print.

Marchak, Patricia. No Easy Fix: Global Responses to Internal Wars and Crimes against Humanity . Montreal: McGill-Queen’s UP, 2008. Print.

Schumacher, Julie, and Amy Slep. “Attitudes and Dating Aggression: A Cognitive Dissonance Approach.” Prevention Science 5.4 (2004): 231-243. Print.

Smock, David R. Teaching About the Religious Other . Washington: United States Institute of Peace, 2005. Print.

Smolak, Linda, and Sarah Murnen. “Gender, Self-Objectification and Pubic Hair Removal.” Sex Roles 65.7/8 (2011): 506-517. Print.

Tepfenhart, Mariana. “The Causes of Ethnic Conflicts.” Comparative Civilizations Review 68.2 (2013): 84-97. Print.

Vlachova, Marie, and Lea Biason. Making the World a More Secure Place: Combating Violence against Women . Geneva: DCAF, 2004. Print.

Wilson, John, Matthew Friedman, and Jacob Lindy. Treating Psychological Trauma and Ptsd . New York: Guilford Press, 2001. Print.

Yakushko, Oksana, Megan Watson, and Sarah Thompson. “Stress and Coping in the Lives of Recent Immigrants and Refugees: Considerations for Counseling.” International Journal for The Advancement of Counselling 30.3 (2008): 167-178. Print.

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Home — Essay Samples — Social Issues — Gender Inequality — A Discussion on Gender-Based Violence


Gender-based Violence: Effects and Prevention Methods

  • Categories: Gender Gender Inequality Race and Gender

About this sample


Words: 382 |

Published: Jul 17, 2018

Words: 382 | Page: 1 | 2 min read

Gender-based violence: essay introduction

Works cited.

  • World Health Organization. (2013). Global and regional estimates of violence against women: Prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. Retrieved from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/85239/9789241564625_eng.pdf
  • United Nations. (n.d.). Violence against women: Facts everyone should know. Retrieved from https://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/ending-violence-against-women/facts-and-figures
  • Heise, L. L., & Kotsadam, A. (2015). Cross-national and multilevel correlates of partner violence: An analysis of data from population-based surveys. The Lancet Global Health, 3(6), e332-e340. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(15)00013-3
  • García-Moreno, C., Hegarty, K., d'Oliveira, A. F., Koziol-McLain, J., Colombini, M., & Feder, G. (2015). The health-systems response to violence against women. The Lancet, 385(9977), 1567-1579. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61837-7
  • Jewkes, R., Flood, M., & Lang, J. (2015). From work with men and boys to changes of social norms and reduction of inequities in gender relations: A conceptual shift in prevention of violence against women and girls. The Lancet, 385(9977), 1580-1589. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61683-4
  • United Nations Development Programme. (n.d.). Ending violence against women. Retrieved from https://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-development-goals/goal-5-gender-equality/overview/ending-violence-against-women.html
  • Krug, E. G., Mercy, J. A., Dahlberg, L. L., & Zwi, A. B. (2002). The world report on violence and health. The Lancet, 360(9339), 1083-1088. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11133-0
  • Human Rights Watch. (n.d.). Violence against women. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/topic/womens-rights/violence-against-women
  • United Nations Women. (n.d.). Gender-based violence. Retrieved from https://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/ending-violence-against-women/facts-and-figures/gender-based-violence
  • World Bank. (n.d.). Gender-based violence. Retrieved from https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/gbv

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gender based violence essay 200 words

Gender-Based Violence in South Africa

Gender-based violence is any harm done to a person or group of persons because of their actual or perceived sex, gender, sexual orientation, and gender identity. Any act of gender-based violence, whether public or private, causes or is likely to inflict bodily, sexual, or psychological pain or suffering to women, including threats of such actions, coercion, or arbitrary loss of liberty. Gender-based violence is motivated by a desire to humiliate and make a person or group feel inferior or submissive and is based on a power imbalance.

The violence is deeply ingrained in society’s social and cultural institutions, habits, and beliefs, and it is usually perpetrated through the use of technology. As Suzor et al. (2018) illustrated, gender-based violence can take many forms, ranging from verbal hostility and hate speech on the Internet to rape or murder. A former spouse or a current, a family member, a co-worker, schoolmates, friends, an unknown individual, or someone acting on behalf of cultural, religious, state, or intra-state institutions can all perpetuate it. This essay covers a gender-based violence practice against women, in particular, the rising rape cases in South Africa.

Rape is defined broadly under South Africa’s judicial system. Moreover, it comprises oral, anal, or vaginal penetration of a person’s mouth with an animal’s sexual organs and anal or vaginal penetration with any item. In the 2019/20 fiscal year, the police recorded 42,289 rapes, up from 41,583 in the previous fiscal year (Banda, 2020). The data equates to an average of 116 rapes every day reported to the police (Banda, 2020). The ISS has cautioned that police rape data are not an “accurate indicator of either the extent or trend of this crime.

The findings supports my rationale for focusing on rape, a well-known form of gender-based violence in South Africa that affects young women. The steady rise in violence against women has become one of the most visible and destructive vestiges of this complicated history, intensified by apartheid’s aggression, the social consequences of the migrant labor force, and patriarchal authority’s impact. Sexual assault was used to maintain control, submission, and interracial compliance during the colonial era and the apartheid era.

The act is the most heinous kind of gender-based violence that exists. Hence, it is critical to endorse stringent policies to combat the steady surge of rape cases in South Africa. Several rape cases were recorded from January to March 2021, the data represents a 387-case decrease over the same period in 2020 (Banda, 2020). The number of rape cases documented at that time, according to one gender activist, illustrates how little is being implemented in the country to fight GBV. More than 2 000 people have reported rape cases in Gauteng since the beginning of the year, ranking it as the country’s economic hub the top province for verified rapes in South Africa.

After critical analysis, it is clear that South Africa is a society riven with deep contradictions, especially between the pledges of the legislation and the reality of modern life. Legislation is a step forward, but official legal reform is merely the beginning. Implementing tools for cultural change is critical, yet changing a society’s culture is not simple. Because of the apartheid heritage, sexual violence remains rampant; nonetheless, the legal elimination of apartheid did not eliminate the institutions that held society in check. Violence continues to be a part of many people’s lives, particularly women’s lives. The system of government and its institutions, such as the police force, have established sexual violence as a social standard rather than making genuine efforts to counteract it, resulting in the continuation of sexual violence.

Most research on rape researcher has emphasized that historical studies of sexual violence against women are crucial. In that regard rape is seen as not only a severe problem that needs to be addressed but also as a vehicle for exploring bigger issues of gender-based violence. Insight into significant historical themes can be gained through research into rape in South Africa.

Three hypotheses have dominated the rape debate since the 1970s. Rape theories are classified as Feminist, Social Learning, and Biological (Kukkaje, 2019). Despite their popularity, these ideas have proven ineffective in describing the South African reality because of their western focus. The principles of Feminist Theory and Social Learning theory, on the other hand, have informed my view of rape’s origins. According to the Feminist theory, rape is the product of ancient and profound entrenched social practices, in which males have dominated all critical political and economic activities practically. According to the theory, women have been barred from gaining social and economic power in society. As a result, they’ve been labeled as unequal.

Men commit domination and reinforce women’s subordination through physical violence, known as women rape. Donnerstein and Malamuth’s Social Learning Theory, the notion emphasizes the role of cultural variables in understanding rape (Fritz, et al., 2020). This perspective contends that rape is a taught habit influenced by culture and a society’s prevalence of violence. As a result, images of sex and violence, often known as “rape myths” and desensitization to these effects, all play a part in forming rape culture. The third rape theory, as exacerbates that aggressive sexual conduct by males is a response to natural selection and the drive to reproduce (Baumeister, 2018). Accordingly, aggressive copulatory methods are an extreme reaction to natural selection pressure for men to be pushier in their attempts to copulate than females. Both the Feminist and Social Learning theories may be applied to the rape epidemic in South Africa. The identification of a gender hierarchy in feminist theory applies to male-dominated townships. Due to their marginalization as citizens, women have had little social or political authority in these areas.

Survivors experience diverse negative impacts of sexual assault; there is no list of typical “symptoms” they should exhibit. What is shared is that such effects are profound, affecting the physical and mental health of victims/survivors and their interpersonal relationships with family, friends, partners and colleagues. More than this, the impacts of sexual assault go beyond the individual to have a collective effect on the social wellbeing of our communities.

There are a variety of effects on humans, the most significant of which are psychological and emotional repercussions. Sexual assault has been linked to various short- and long-term mental and emotional impacts (Voth et al, 2018). Thus, it is usual to have symptoms like extreme dread of death and detachment during an assault. These are normal bodily reactions. The fact that terror paralyzed the victim does not indicate she consented to the attack. After a case of rape, the most common reactions are anxiety and acute terror. As a result of sexual assault, many people are afraid of catching HIV/STIs and becoming pregnant. Sexual assault can lead to fears of future attacks and other damage. This presumption is shattered if the victim/survivor has previously regarded the world as essentially a secure place.

The trauma response model and the clinical diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have aided in recognizing the gravity of the pain inflicted on those who have been sexually assaulted and the scope of the violation they have endured. Not every woman who has been sexually assaulted suffers from physical damage or medical issues. Sexual assault, on the other hand, can result in a wide range of physical damage and health effects. Injuries might occur as a direct result of the assault, subsequent problems, or psychological harm. For sure victims of penetrative sexual assault, physical consequences might include injury to the urethra, vagina, and anus; gastrointestinal, sexual, and reproductive health issues; pain syndromes; and eating disorders, including bulimia nervosa—increased risk of sexually transmitted illnesses such as HIV/AIDS, unintended pregnancy, and abortion decisions. Irritable bowel syndrome, chronic diseases like diabetes and arthritis, headaches, and gynecologic symptoms like dysmenorrhea, pain or cramps in the lower abdomen during menstruation, menorrhagia (abnormally heavy or prolonged bleeding during menstruation), and sex-related issues are just a few examples.

People who have been sexually abused have lower self-esteem than those who have never been sexually abused. Sexual assault can affect how the victim/survivor interacts with family, friends, and the community at large. Following a sexual assault, interpersonal connections with intimate partners and friendships and familial interactions can be impacted. Communication problems, intimacy issues, trust issues, sexual relations issues, and the pleasure of social activities can all be harmed. Overprotectiveness on the victim might also be a problem due to avoidance of social interactions and feelings of poor self-worth and self-doubt. Family, friends, and partners’ reactions might assist or harm the situation. The victim’s survivor’s Negative emotions can lead to avoidant coping strategies linked to a lower recovery success rate, but supportive reactions can help in recovery and healing.

Sexual assault has ramifications for the victim’s partner, children, family, and friends, as well as the larger community: A sexual assault and its aftermath can affect non-perpetrator family members, partners, acquaintances, and children of victims/survivors; these persons are frequently referred to as “secondary victims.” Secondary victims often suffer from the impacts of trauma, with symptoms that are sometimes comparable to those experienced by primary victims, and knowledge of a traumatic incident experienced by a significant other is painful in and of itself – this is secondary trauma.

Even though it is impossible to put a monetary number on the trauma inflicted by sexual assault, it is crucial to recognize that the victim and the wider community bear financial expenses. Loss of actual wages, future earning potential, medical expenditures; intangible costs (loss of quality of life, sorrow, and suffering); and counseling fees are just a few examples. The victim frequently incurs such expenses and costs; nevertheless, the whole community bears the consequences of sexual assault, both financial and non-financial. In each state and territory, monetary compensation may be offered through the relevant organization. Furthermore, details, connections, and information may be found. Rapists’ psychological reasons are more complicated than previously imagined. They might include the urge to punish, exact vengeance, inflict pain, demonstrate sexual prowess, or exert control via terror.

Mann, 2021, compares rape victims to those who are in excruciating pain but can’t help themselves. The juxtaposition of animal predation with routine sexual assault begs the question of how a reaction reserved for deadly, no-way-out conditions in animals is present in modes of violation when the victim does not report fear of death or serious bodily damage.

Many people experience remorse after witnessing rape victims. They visualize their counterpart’s agony, making them fearful of being in a similar circumstance. Furthermore, they have a variety of psychological reactions, but they frequently involve feelings of guilt, humiliation, uncertainty, fear, and wrath. Victims often describe a pervasive sensation of filth, an inability to feel clean, an overpowering sense of vulnerability, and a paralyzing sense of powerlessness over their life. Many people are terrified of returning to the crime scene, being followed, and having any sexual connections. Others have sleep or food routines that have been disrupted for a long time or cannot perform at work.

For the record, eliminating violence against young women and girls requires a multi-pronged, community-based strategy as well as ongoing interaction with a wide range of stakeholders, such as everyone’s participation. In order to be most effective, violence prevention initiatives must address underlying risk factors for violence, such as gender roles in society and societal tolerance for violence. If we do not address this issue now, we will incur significant costs in the future. Children who grow up in a violent environment are more likely to become future survivors or perpetrators of violence, according to numerous research.

Banda, Z. J. (2020). A survey on gender-based violence – The paradox of trust between women and men in South Africa: A missiological scrutiny. HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies , 76 (1). Web.

Baumeister, H. (2018). Theories and legislative histories of war rape and forced marriage. Sexualised Crimes, Armed Conflict and the Law, 43–81. Web.

Fritz, N., Malic, V., Paul, B., & Zhou, Y. (2020). A descriptive analysis of the types, targets, and relative frequency of aggression in mainstream pornography. Archives of Sexual Behavior , 49 (8), 3041–3053. Web.

Kukkaje, M. (2019). Violence against women: A review of literature with reference to men perpetrators. Artha – Journal of Social Sciences , 18 (1), 1–12. Web.

Mann, B. (2021). Rape and social death. Feminist Theory. Web.

Suzor, N., Dragiewicz, M., Harris, B., Gillett, R., Burgess, J., & Van Geelen, T. (2018). Human Rights by design: The responsibilities of social media platforms to address gender-based violence online. Policy & internet, 11(1), 84–103. Web.

Voth Schrag, R. J., & Edmond, T. E. (2018). Intimate partner violence, trauma, and mental health need among female community college students. Journal of American College Health , 66 (7), 702-711. Web.

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Gender-based Violence in South Africa Essay Example

Gender-based Violence in South Africa Essay Example


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gender based violence essay 200 words

Gender-based violence ( GBV ) is a deeply concerning issue that continues to affect societies across the globe, and South Africa is no exception. As a Grade 9 learner, tackling an essay on such a profound topic can feel daunting, but it’s a valuable opportunity to explore and engage with important social issues that shape the world around us.

To begin your exploration of this topic, it’s vital to understand what GBV entails – these are actions that cause physical, mental, or sexual harm based on one’s gender. In South Africa, such acts unfortunately happen frequently and can range from intimate partner violence to harmful cultural practices.

Approaching an essay on GBV in South Africa, it’s beneficial to structure your writing into a few key sections. Start with an introduction that defines GBV and gives an overview of its prevalence in South Africa. This will set the stage for a deeper analysis in the following sections.

The main body of your essay should delve into the specifics of GBV in South Africa. Discuss its nature, prevalence, consequences, and possible solutions. Use reliable sources to support your points and don’t shy away from presenting both the harsh realities and the hopeful initiatives aimed at addressing this issue.

Finally, conclude your essay by summarizing your main points and reflecting on the importance of addressing GBV for the future of South Africa.

Remember, an essay isn’t just about presenting facts – it’s about demonstrating your understanding and perspectives on a topic. So, express your thoughts, share your ideas, and let your voice be heard. Good luck with your essay-writing journey!

Table of Contents

Title: An Insight into Gender-Based Violence in South Africa


Gender-based violence (GBV) remains a pervasive issue in South Africa, deeply rooted in societal norms and perpetuated through silence, stigma, and systemic failures. It’s a grave violation of human rights that impedes social progress and threatens the fabric of the society. This essay will delve into the nature, prevalence, and consequences of GBV in South Africa, as well as consider potential solutions.

Understanding the Nature of Gender-Based Violence

GBV encompasses acts that inflict physical, sexual, or mental harm or suffering based on gender differences. In South Africa, this violence is alarmingly widespread and often brutal, affecting individuals across all social strata. These acts range from intimate partner violence, sexual violence, human trafficking, to harmful cultural practices. Gender-based power imbalances, patriarchal societal norms, and economic inequalities are fundamental contributors to GBV.

Prevalence of GBV in South Africa

According to the South African Police Service (SAPS), GBV cases have reached alarmingly high levels, with thousands of murders and sexual offenses reported annually. The actual prevalence is likely much higher, considering many victims don’t report due to fear of reprisal, stigma, or lack of faith in the justice system. The COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdowns have further exacerbated the situation, with a marked increase in cases, painting a grim picture of the state of GBV in South Africa.

The Consequences of GBV

The effects of GBV are profound, extending beyond the immediate physical harm. Survivors often grapple with psychological trauma, social stigmatization, and economic instability. GBV also contributes to public health crises, such as the spread of HIV/AIDS . Additionally, it inhibits societal growth and development by keeping a significant proportion of the population – women and girls – in fear, suppressing their potential contribution to social and economic progress.

Potential Solutions to GBV in South Africa

Addressing GBV requires a multi-faceted approach, starting with strengthening legal frameworks and improving their implementation to ensure justice for victims. This could involve enhancing police training, streamlining judicial processes, and strengthening victim support systems. Moreover, it’s essential to tackle the societal norms that perpetuate GBV through education, community dialogues, and public awareness campaigns. Economic empowerment initiatives for women can also help break the cycle of violence by providing financial independence and security.

In summary, gender-based violence is a critical challenge facing South Africa, deeply embedded within societal norms and structures. It demands urgent action from all sectors – government , civil society, and individuals alike – to ensure a safe, equitable society. Through a combination of strong legislative action, social awareness, and economic empowerment, South Africa can start to dismantle the structures that enable GBV, ensuring a safer future for all its inhabitants.

  • 12 Reasons why incidents of Gender-based Violence in Communities Continue
  • Why South Africans need to help those Affected by Gender-based Violence
  • How gender inequality in relationships could contribute to sexual abuse
  • How gender inequality in relationships could contribute to teenage pregnancy
  • Breaking the Cycle: How Society can Contribute to the Ongoing Displays of Gender Stereotypes in SA Communities
  • The Causes of gender-based Violence During Lockdown
  • The Negative Impact of Gender Differences in Sports Participation
  • Strategies that Girls could Implement to Challenge Gender Stereotypes within the school
  • 20 Examples of Traditional Gender Roles
  • Why Both Men and Women could become Victims of Gender-based Violence
  • What can Victims of Gender-based Violence do to Ensure Safety
  • Reasons why Discrimination Against Gender is Illegal in the South African Constitution
  • How Can NGOs Take Concrete Steps to Eradicate Gender-Based Violence?
  • At what Age do Children Make Gender-Stereotyped Game and Toy Choices?
  • Reasons Why Survivors of Gender-based Violence may Feel Hesitant to Report Human Rights Violation
  • Strategies that Responsible Citizens may use to Help Victims of Gender-based Violence
  • Feminist Legal Theory: is it Wrong to Treat Men and Women Differently on the Basis of Gender
  • 10 Causes of Gender-Based Violence in South Africa with Examples
  • A Critical Discussion on Gender-Based Violence as a Human Rights Violation in South Africa: Acts and Examples
  • The Devastating Effects of Gender-Based Violence in South Africa: Real-Life Examples and the Way Forward

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Gender-Based Violence in South Africa Essay – 300, 500 Words

Essay on gender-based violence in south africa – 300 words.

Gender-based violence (GBV) remains a deeply entrenched crisis in South Africa, casting a dark shadow over the nation’s progress and potential. Despite legislative efforts and heightened awareness, the prevalence of GBV continues to haunt the lives of countless individuals, predominantly women and girls. This essay explores the factors contributing to the persistence of GBV in South Africa and highlights the urgent need for comprehensive solutions.

Table of Contents

A complex interplay of socio-economic, cultural, and historical factors has contributed to the alarming rates of GBV in South Africa. The legacy of apartheid, where violence was used as a tool of oppression, has perpetuated a culture of violence in many spheres of society. Economic disparities, inadequate access to education, and limited employment opportunities fuel a cycle of poverty, trapping many women in situations where they are vulnerable to abuse.

Cultural norms and traditional attitudes further exacerbate the problem. Patriarchal notions of masculinity and femininity often enforce power imbalances, normalizing the domination of women and subjugating their rights. Moreover, harmful practices such as forced marriages, female genital mutilation, and “corrective” rape against LGBTQ+ individuals persist, amplifying the spectrum of violence faced by various marginalized groups.

The legal framework in South Africa is relatively robust, with laws such as the Domestic Violence Act and the Sexual Offences Act. However, implementation and enforcement remain challenging due to limited resources, corruption, and a lack of awareness about legal protections. A culture of impunity prevails, enabling perpetrators to escape accountability and perpetuate the cycle of violence.

To address this crisis, a multi-faceted approach is essential. Comprehensive sex education, starting at an early age, can challenge harmful gender stereotypes and promote respectful relationships. Strengthening economic opportunities for women, coupled with accessible healthcare and counseling services, can provide pathways to independence and healing for survivors. Civil society organizations and government agencies must collaborate to enhance awareness campaigns, provide safe spaces, and streamline reporting processes.

In conclusion, gender-based violence in South Africa continues to be a deeply rooted and concerning issue, impeding the nation’s social progress. The convergence of historical, cultural, and economic factors has perpetuated the cycle of violence against women and vulnerable groups. A concerted effort involving legal reforms, education, economic empowerment, and cultural transformation is imperative to break the chains of GBV and pave the way for a more just and equitable society.

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Essay on Gender-Based Violence in South Africa – 500 Words

Introduction Gender-based violence (GBV) remains a deeply entrenched issue in South Africa, posing significant challenges to the nation’s social fabric and development. Despite progress in various areas, the prevalence of GBV continues to cast a shadow over the country’s efforts toward equality, human rights, and empowerment. This essay explores the root causes, manifestations, and efforts to combat GBV in South Africa.

Root Causes The pervasive nature of GBV in South Africa can be attributed to a complex interplay of historical, cultural, socio-economic, and structural factors. A history of apartheid, racial segregation, and inequality has contributed to a legacy of violence and power imbalances. High levels of poverty, unemployment, and inadequate access to education exacerbate the problem, as they limit opportunities for personal and economic growth, particularly among women.

Manifestations of Gender-Based Violence GBV in South Africa takes various forms, including physical, sexual, emotional, and economic abuse. Women and girls are disproportionately affected, facing intimate partner violence, domestic abuse, sexual assault, and human trafficking. The deeply ingrained cultural norms and beliefs often perpetuate a cycle of violence, where victim-blaming and silencing victims hinder reporting and legal action.

Efforts to Combat Gender-Based Violence South Africa has taken steps to address GBV through legislative, policy, and advocacy initiatives. The National Policy Framework for Women’s Empowerment and Gender Equality seeks to integrate gender considerations into all aspects of government planning and programming. The Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act strengthens legal protection against sexual offenses and rape. Additionally, campaigns such as “16 Days of Activism for No Violence Against Women and Children” raise awareness and promote community involvement.

However, challenges persist due to implementation gaps, inadequate resources, and cultural resistance to change. The criminal justice system’s inefficiencies often lead to low conviction rates, perpetuating a sense of impunity among perpetrators. Furthermore, patriarchal norms and traditional attitudes continue to hinder progress, as they can discourage survivors from seeking help and pursuing legal action.

Civil society organizations and grassroots movements have emerged as critical players in the fight against GBV. Initiatives like the “Soul City” multimedia campaign engage communities in discussions about gender norms, power dynamics, and violence prevention. Women’s shelters and support centers provide safe spaces and resources for women survivors. These efforts underscore the importance of involving all segments of society in creating a comprehensive response.

Conclusion Gender-based violence in South Africa remains a pervasive issue with deep-rooted causes and complex manifestations. Despite the country’s legislative and policy measures to combat GBV, progress has been slow due to systemic challenges and cultural resistance. To truly address this issue, a multi-faceted approach is required, involving government action, community engagement, education, and advocacy. Eradicating GBV requires a collective commitment to changing cultural norms, empowering women, and building a society where safety and equality are paramount. Only then can South Africa strive toward a future free from the shadow of gender-based violence.

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    There are various forms of gender-based violence against women in every society. For instance, an intimate partner violence is the most common one where women who are currently or were previously in a relationship tend to experience. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 60% of the women worldwide have experienced ...


    Say no to any form of violence - including physical, emotional, psychological, sexual or economic violence. Nothing can be an excuse for violence against women. Act as a leader in your community and say no to violence/harmful practices by showcasing solidarity against it. During difficult times, child marriage (marriage under the age of 18 ...

  23. Gender-Based Violence in South Africa

    This essay covers a gender-based violence practice against women, in particular, the rising rape cases in South Africa. We will write a custom essay on your topic tailored to your instructions! 308 experts online. Let us help you. Rape is defined broadly under South Africa's judicial system. Moreover, it comprises oral, anal, or vaginal ...

  24. Gender-based Violence in South Africa Essay Example

    Gender-based violence is a deeply concerning issue that continues to affect societies across the globe, and South Africa is no exception.As a Grade 9 learner, tackling an essay on such a profound topic can feel daunting, but it's a valuable opportunity to explore and engage with important social issues that shape the world around us.. To begin your exploration of this topic, it's vital to ...

  25. Gender-Based Violence in South Africa Essay

    Essay on Gender-Based Violence in South Africa - 500 Words. A complex interplay of socio-economic, cultural, and historical factors has contributed to the alarming rates of GBV in South Africa. The legacy of apartheid, where violence was used as a tool of oppression, has perpetuated a culture of violence in many spheres of society.